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By Chen Ru;Zhang Qiwang

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VO} {v' o'} -+ vo . v' 0' Where a = svo, f3 = s'v' 0' SVO# $ s' iv'0' I- svo . 6 {svo} Where a {s'v'o'} = P NV(3 -+ svo· svo = svo, f3 = s'v'o' SVO# $ is'v' 0' I- svo . 7) 34 WHERE MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE, liNGUISTICS ... This is a recursive rule without any restriction beyond our own memory. 2 BOUNDER GHOSTS There is an only condition under which bounders arise in splicing operations, and that is the existence of sv in the friction groups. They are valid, then, in the following contexts: * (s'v') ](svo)(s'v'o') -+ (svo) * (s'v'o') [4.

Emergent ghosts are the only ones that can be brought about by the application of splicing rules in two linguistic strings. But there are several molecular operations which produce these kinds of ghosts, such as sticker systems. It remains for us to study emergent ghosts produced by other molecular operations, as well as other ghosts that can arise because of both the manipulation of strings produced by staggered cuts and mutations carried out in a string. References [l] Head, T. (1987), Formal language theory and DNA: an analysis of the generative capaci ty of specific recombinant behaviours, Bulletin ofMathematical Biology, 49: 737-759.

1 and its proof we immediately obtain the following result. 2 Size complexity measure CVar and C Prod are bounded on the class of recursively enumerable languages with respect to the class of contextfree returning PC grammar systems. Acknowledgments Thanks are due to Gy. Vaszil for his useful comments to the previous version of the paper. ; J. Dassow; J. Kelemen & Gh. Paun (1994), Grammar Systems: A Grammatical Approach to Distribution and Cooperation, Gordon and Breach, London. [2] Csuhaj-Varju, E.

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