Download Alexander and the East: The Tragedy of Triumph by A. B. Bosworth PDF

By A. B. Bosworth

During this examine, Bosworth appears at Alexander the Great's actions in primary Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression corresponding to the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and proposal of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander via historians of antiquity. The booklet is directed to experts and common readers alike.

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5. 24. 7. Similar pursuits of refugees are recorded among the Malli (Arr. 6. 6. 6; 7. 2; 8. 3, 8). 83 See below, Ch. 3, pp. 94-7; Ch. 5, pp. 133-4330 The Shield of Achilles 29 it went a distinct lack of respect for life. Alexander had a short way with horse thieves, at least when his favourite stallion, Bucephalas, was stolen. His love for the animal is not in doubt, nor is his ruthlessness in face of the loss. 84 There is also some deterioration in 'the world where promises were kept'. 87 Alexander certainly behaved as though he felt no binding moral constraints, and by the end of his reign he was able to revoke one of the foundation clauses of the Corinthian League, a compact sanctioned by his father and himself, and demand by edict the restoration of exiles throughout the Greek world.

Similarly Oxydates, Alexander's first satrap of Media, was appointed because he had been out of favour and imprisoned by Darius (Arr. 3. 3; Curt. 6. 2. n ) 3 while in Parthyaea the appointee was Amminapes3 who had surrendered Egypt to Alexander and had previously spent a period of exile at the Macedonian court (Arr. 22. 25). The Shield of Achilles 21 was no epic struggle of heroes, but a stark massacre, the annihilation of a relatively small and inexperienced army fatefully embroiled in a battle it had no chance of winning.

40 Now this data is hard to assess. It is unlikely that reliable figures would ever have been available for the size of Porus' army, and the eyewitness reports of the victors must inevitably have exaggerated the enemy numbers to their own advantage. That happened to a grotesque degree in the reports of Gaugamela, which give figures ranging from 200,000 (Curtius) to 1,000,000 (Arrian) for the Persian infantry. The figures at the Hydaspes are much more sober, but even so they are clearly overestimates.

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