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By M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

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The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is, as a topographic feature, about 1000 km wide in places and rises 1 to 3 km or so from the ocean basin floors which ( 1 2 6) flank it to east and west. It has been divided into several topographic provinces; these are the rift mountains and the central rift valley along .! Seismic Belt Nauticol Miles 100 200 e Along 14 S. lot 400 500 600 P R O F I L E S OF A F R I C A N R I F T VALLEYS AND THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE V E R T I C A L E X A 6 6 E R A T I 0 N 4011 Fig. 14. Comparison of profiles across East African Rift Valleys (and Mid1 2 6 the ) Atlantic Ridge (after B.

T h e variation of this value with latitude is approximately 1 mgal per minute of latitude; an error of 1 nautical mile in position in a north-south direction leads to an error of 1 mgal in the theoretical value of g. T h e theoretical value with which the measured value will be compared depends also upon the velocity of the ship which is making the measurement. This is because the measurement is made upon a vehicle moving in a rotating co-ordinate system. If the ship is moving at constant speed the correction which has to be applied —the Eötvös correction — is approximately 4-04 cos (latitude) mgals per km/hr west to east velocity.

A) Present range of the euphausiid Thysanoessa gregaria compared with hypothetical circumstances of oceanwide warming (b) and cooling (c), both by 2-5°C. T h e 7°C and 11°C isotherms at 200 m depth, associated with present limits of distribution of T. gregana, are considered limiting for the purpose of the extrapolation. With warming (b), the 7°C isotherm (at the high-latitude boundary) moves to position of present 4-5°C isotherm, and the 11 °C isotherm (at the low latitude boundary) moves to position of present 8-5°C isotherm.

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