By Faruk Abu-Chacra
Arabic: a necessary Grammar is an up to date and sensible reference advisor to an important features of the language. appropriate for newcomers, in addition to intermediate scholars, this e-book deals a robust beginning for studying the basic grammar and constitution of Arabic.
The complexities of the language are set out in brief, readable sections, and workouts and examples are supplied all through. The ebook is perfect for self sufficient inexperienced persons in addition to for school room study.
Features of this e-book include:
- assurance of the Arabic script and alphabet
- a bankruptcy on Arabic handwriting
- a consultant to pronunciation
- complete examples all through.
Read or Download Arabic: An Essential Grammar PDF
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Additional info for Arabic: An Essential Grammar
G. g. g. g. g. 6 The maddah sign The maddah sign َﻣّﺪٌَة is a long slanting or curved superscript line representing the alif, which is written above another alif to signify the lengthening of / a/ as / a¯ /. It is used when an alif which has hamzah and fathah ( )َأis followed by another alif ()َأا. The alif, hamzah and fathah ˙ ˙ are all omitted, and only one alif is written with the sign maddah above it as ( اfor: )َأا, which is pronounced as / a¯ /. g. ( َأْﻟُﻘْﺮاُنfor: ) َأْﻟُﻘْﺮَأاُن al-qur a¯ nu, the Quran ( َراُهfor: )َرَأاُه ra a¯ -hu, he saw him/it When an alif having hamzah and fathah َأis followed by another alif ˙ with hamzah and suku¯ n ()ْأ, only one alif is written with maddah above it ا (for: )َأ ْأ, which is also pronounced / a¯ /.
2 The employee 1read 3a long name. 3 2 1 43 Sun and moon letters, hamzatu l-wasli ˙ (waslah) ˙ ْ ﻟ َّﻠ . ﺤَﻢ 2 ُ ﺷَﺘَﺮى َْﻷ ب ْ ِإ 1 (18) isˇtara¯ l- abu l-lahma. ˙ The father 1bought 2the meat. ﻞ َ ﺠَﺒ َ ْﻟـ 2 ﺴﺎِﻓُﺮ َ ﺻِﻌَﺪ ْﻟـُﻤ َ 1 (19) sa ida l-musa¯ firu l-g˘ abala. ˙ The traveller 1climbed 2the mountain. ﻞ َ ْﻷَْﻛ 4 3 2 1 ﺐ َ ﻃَﻠ َ ﻄَﻌَﻢ ُﺛ َّﻢ ْ ﺧﻞَ ﻟﺰَُّﺑﻮُن ْﻟـَﻤ َ َد 5 (20) dahala z-zabu¯nu l-mat ama tumma talaba l- akla. ˘ ¯ ˙ ˙ 1 The customer entered 2the restaurant, 3then 4he ordered 5the food.
G. ُﻧـﻮٌرnu¯run, light ... g. ِدﻳـٌﻦdı-nun, religion Note: In some books long vowels are transliterated as double vowels. Here we use the macron above the vowel to indicate length. ﻟـ ـﺎ... is called la¯ m- alif and written as َﻻor ﻼ َ ـ.... /la¯ / (not as )َﻟـﺎ. g. 3 Alif maqsu¯ rah ˙ The long vowel /a¯ / at the end of a word can be written with alif ـَﺎ... or, in some words, with ya¯ , but without dots َـﻰ... g. ˙ ala¯ , on َرَوىrawa¯ , to tell َرَﻣﻰrama¯ , to throw Note: Certain rules explained in later chapters govern which one of the two alifs is to be used in a word.