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By Martin Harwit (auth.)

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05 MetaIPoo? 15 Ratios shown in square brackets are comparisons to solar ratios and given in logarithms to the base ten. b These abundances are straight means ofthe results for the clusters NGC 104 (47Tuc), NGC 6352, and NGC 6838 (M7l). 9. d These abundances are averages of the abundances of MI5 and M92. From (Wh89), with pennission from the Annual Reviews 0/Astronomy and Astrophysics ©I989, Annual Reviews, Ine. a such early epochs that the original wavelength J... /J... '" 20. Such early, luminous objects would then be apparent to us only through observations at infrared wavelengths around 5 to 10 /-Lm.

From this and from the spectra of gases released by the comet on approaching the Sun, we can make emde chemical analyses of the comets' contents. We find that, in addition to large amounts ofhydrogen, they contain those elements that are also abundant in the outer planets. Apreeise analysis of material constituting the nueleus of a comet may have to await a spacecraft probe that lands on a nueleus and examines the local matter before evaporation, dissociation, or ionization by sunlight. In the meantime, space probes which approached comet Halley in 1986 were at least able to analyze the gases in elose vicinity of the nueleus, and to analyze the dust grain size distribution there.

The path ofthe stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram proceeds toward the 1eft. The left end ofthe curves roughly coincides with the main sequence. 5 x 10 8 yr. The steep portion on the right is called the Hayashi track. The curves denoting very 10w mass stars correspond to pre-mainsequence evo1utionary tracks ofT Tauri stars; small circles indicate their surface rotational ve10cities (Ha66), (B086) (after Iben (lb65)). break up to form planets or one major companion. The rest may be ejected back into interstellar space.

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