By Dan Green
Too usually descriptions of detectors specialise in the "what" and never the "why". This quantity goals to explain how the necessities of the physics on the huge Hadron Collider (LHC) outline the detector setting. In flip, the detector offerings are made to undertake to that atmosphere. The aim of LHC physics is to discover the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. as a result of minuscule cross-sections which must be explored, 0.1 facebook, the LHC must supply a hundred fb-1/yr, or an immediate luminosity of 1034 / (cm2 sec). With a number crossing period of 25 nsec, like minded to detector speeds, there'll be 25 occasions occupying each one bunch crossing. hence the physics calls for quickly, finely segmented, low noise and radiation resistant detectors which offer redundant measurements of the not often produced electrons and muons. to accomplish these pursuits, new flooring used to be damaged in developing the A Toroidal LHC equipment (ATLAS) and Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detectors within the vertex detectors, monitoring platforms, calorimetry, robust magnets, muon platforms, entrance finish electronics, set off platforms, and within the information acquisition tools used.
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Additional resources for At the Leading Edge: The ATLAS and CMS LHC Experiments
5, at the limit of muon angular coverage. Hence, in the endcap region of the muon system many of the muons in the desired signal will be above the critical energy. In general, those muons will radiate, which then requires multiple measurements of their trajectories since the associated shower of collimated particles will spoil some of the measurements. A robust set of measurements can be achieved by isolating each set of measurements by interposing material of depth ∆t ∼ 10, which serves to decouple each set from the others.
A clean sample of top pairs with hadronic W decay also allows for a measurement of the dijet mass resolution at the W mass scale and an in situ energy scale calibration point for the calorimetry, ¯ W + b. 1% precision energy measurement. A plot of the depth needed for an average 95% and 99% shower containment as a function of energy is shown in Fig. 16. 25 TeV. Asking for 99% shower containment requires about 10 λ0 total calorimeter depth, or about 9 λ0 in the HCAL. 9 λ0 , which meets this speciﬁcation.
9 λ0 , which meets this speciﬁcation. In fact the “jet” of hadrons from the quark hadronization means that the quark energy is shared over several ﬁnal state hadrons, which makes the depth requirement somewhat less demanding. Fig. 16. Depth needed for a shower energy containment of 95% and 99% as a function of hadron energy. 5in — At the Leading Edge ... How Physics Defines the LHC Environment and Detectors b866-ch01 29 Fig. 17. Data on the energy proﬁle for charged pions with 240 GeV energy, without subtracting the initial interaction point, ◦, and after subtraction,∗ .