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By Patrick Richard (Eds.)

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3, in the target room of the pressure tank machine. The early pressure tank Van de Graaff generators were developed to a nominal 5-MV operation. 5 m in diameter. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF,, is used in some accelerators due to its superior insulating properties. A machine operating with pure SF6 can operate at -4 atm with better insulating properties than C02-N mixtures. The second major upgrade was the development of the "tandem" o r two-stage accelerator, which was proposed in 1936 by Bennett and *O R.

This mechanism is significant only at relativistic velocities. Projectiles emit photons because of deceleration in the medium (bremsstrahlung). (4) Nuclear reactions. For certain very specific combinations of projectile, energy, and target, a nuclear reaction can be induced. Here we concentrate on the first two of these mechanisms. Microscopically, energy loss due to excitation, ionization, or nuclear motion is a discrete process. Macroscopically, however, it is a good assumption that the moving ions lose energy continuously.

S . Fraser, and H . R. Schneider, CRNL Report AECL-4654 (1973). 35 D. J. Clark, Proc. , McCill Univ. (1973). 38 Studio del progetto di un circlotrone superconduttore per ioni pesanti, Instituto nazionale di fisica nucleare (1976). 37 H . G. Blosser, V l I Internarionul Conference on Cyclotrons, Birkhauser Verlag, p. 584 (1975). 38 R. Wideroe, Arch. Elektrotech. 21, 387 (1928). 2. 7. Global plots of the energy per nucleon (MeV/A) vs. the ion mass ( A ) are given for several accelerators. The curves are labeled according to either their location or their accelerator name: MSU stands for Michigan State University, Ganil is the French project, etc.

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