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By Harold M. McNair, James M. Miller

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Sample text

However, it is the chromatographer’s goal to make the peaks as narrow as possible in order to achieve the best separations. Asymmetric peaks can be classified as tailing or fronting, depending on the location of the asymmetry. The extent of asymmetry is defined as the tailing factor (TF) (Fig. 3). TF = b a Fig. 3. Figure used to define asymmetric ratio or tailing factor. * As can be seen from the equation, a tailing peak will have a TF greater than one. The opposite symmetry, fronting, will yield a TF less than one.

N = 16 ⎛ R ⎞ = R ⎝ wb ⎠ σ L 13. H = N 2d 14. 54 ⎛ R ⎞ ⎝ wh ⎠ 2 THE RATE THEORY The earliest attempts to explain chromatographic band broadening were based on an equilibrium model which came to be known as the Plate Theory. While it was of some value, it did not deal with the nonequilibrium conditions that actually exist in the column and did not address the causes of band broadening. However, an alternative approach describing the kinetic factors was soon presented; it became known as the Rate Theory.

For the best peak shape and maximum resolution, the smallest possible sample size should always be used. The more components present in the sample, the larger the sample size may need to be. In most cases, the presence of other components will not affect the location and peak shape of a given solute. For trace work and for preparativescale work, it is often best to use large sample sizes even though they will “overload” the column. The major peaks may be badly distorted, but the desired (trace) peaks will be larger, making it possible to achieve the desired results.

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