By Mats Lindroos
The beta-beam inspiration for the iteration of electron neutrino beams used to be first proposed via Piero Zucchelli in 2002. the belief created rather a stir, tough the concept that extreme neutrino beams basically may be made from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams amenities or in destiny neutrino factories. the concept that in the beginning struggled to make an impression however the exertions by way of many laptop physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians during the last 5 years has received the beta-beam a well-earned place as one of many frontrunners for a potential destiny international laboratory for top depth neutrino oscillation physics. this can be the 1st entire monograph at the beta-beam idea. The booklet describes either technical points and experimental elements of the beta-beam, delivering: scholars and scientists with an perception into the probabilities provided via beta-beams; facility designers with a kick off point for destiny stories; and, coverage makers with a complete photo of the bounds and percentages provided by means of a beta-beam.
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Extra info for Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams
This second station could be very powerful in further reducing the systematics. The goal to constrain the systematics to less than 5% appears quite challenging in conventional neutrino beams. Many systematics that at ﬁrst order cancel out in a close-far detector ratio contribute at the second order if the level of systematic errors is ﬁxed at 5% or below, forcing the need to independently measure any single variable of Eq. 9). Two main problems appear particularly critical from this perspective: • The neutrino ﬂux is necessary in any cross section and eﬃciency measurement.
The feaˇ tures of the Cerenkov rings can be exploited for particle identiﬁcation. A muon scatters very little in crossing the detector, therefore, the associated ˇ Cerenkov ring has sharp edges. Conversely, an electron showers in the water, producing rings with “fuzzy” edges. The total measured light can be used to give an estimate of the lepton energy, while the time measurement provided by each PMT allows the lepton direction and the position of the neutrino interaction vertex to be determined.
At the ﬁrst obstacle in the new equilibrium orbit. g. feeding hadron colliders) or using a machine speciﬁcally designed for the acceleration of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB); in an existing machine the losses have a tendency of being equally distributed over the circumference while for a machine designed for RIBs the losses can be concentrated to certain sections in which collimators and absorbers (see Fig. 12) can help reduce the negative eﬀects of the losses . For the beta-beam facility studied in  the lattice and aperture have been chosen so that lost ions can be dumped in a controlled way or intercepted by absorbers .