Download Caspar David Friedrich: Moonwatchers by Sabine Rewald PDF

By Sabine Rewald

Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), an important determine within the German Romantic stream, painted elegant works representing nature at its so much melancholic and desolate. one in all his most renowned motifs was once that of 2 intimate figures, obvious from in the back of, staring at on the moon. Friedrich painted 3 models of this subject, considered one of which -"Two males considering the Moon" - has been obtained by way of The Metropolitan Museum of artwork. The textual content discusses the Metropolitan's portray along with the opposite types and a couple of similar work and drawings through Friedrich and his Dresden acquaintances. It additionally provides interesting information about the moon itself - together with what was once recognized approximately it in Friedrich's lifetime and its presence and symbolism in modern Romantic poetry.

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Additional info for Caspar David Friedrich: Moonwatchers

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Text: Heiberg (1908, 159–185). 4. Throughout the Little Commentary Theon assumes that dates given for astronomical computations are in the first instance civil Egyptian dates expressed according to the reformed (καθ᾿ Ἕλληνας or “Alexandrian”) Egyptian calendar with a year number according to the Era Diocletian, which was the customary convention for specifying the Egyptian year of a horoscope in the fourth and fifth centuries. Such dates must be converted to the unreformed (κατ᾿ Αἰγυπτίους) Egyptian calendar for entry into Ptolemy’s tables, but at that stage the Era Diocletian is no longer used.

79 Pointing out the resemblance of this to the rate in Theon’s formula, as well as the circumstance that the formula’s epoch coincided with Hipparchus’ earlier equinox observations, he further suggested that Hipparchus invented the theory of trepidation, and that Ptolemy suppressed this aspect of his solar theory. C. seems if anything to be a contradiction of his known deductions on precession (which he made some thirty years later). Ancient Rejection and Adoption of Ptolemy’s Frame 37 I would suggest rather that the theory and associated formula were devised at a later date, as a response to the propagation of tables that yielded longitudes of the heavenly bodies according to an ostensible tropical frame of reference based on a tropical year like Ptolemy’s; from the point of view of the originators of the theory, such tables were pseudo-tropical since they rejected the underlying tropical year.

As it turns out, the scatter in the data up to the fourth century (partly due to uncertainty about the precise time of day or night of the nativities) makes it difficult to judge whether a single-anomaly or twofold-anomaly model is the more appropriate for comparison. The later horoscopes Fig. 2 Lunar longitudes in Greek horoscopes: text minus Ptolemy Ancient Rejection and Adoption of Ptolemy’s Frame 19 Fig. 3 Lunar longitudes in Greek horoscopes: text minus Ptolemy’s simple epicyclic model clearly conform more closely to Ptolemy’s final model.

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