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Additional resources for CCNA Exam Cram™ 2 (Exams 640-821, 640-811, 640-801)
Sub-layers are always referred to by their name or initials and do not have a number. The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer is the lower of these two sub-layers, and is extremely important because it defines the addressing used by the nodes of all networks. Every device or node attached to a network is required to have a unique MAC address. Fortunately each device also requires a Network Interface Card (NIC) to physically attach to a network and this is where the MAC address resides. The address is actually burned into a chip on the NIC by the manufacturer, which brings up an interesting question: How do the numerous manufacturers of NICs know that the MAC address they are using is unique?
Despite the changing definitions, the safe answer is B. Answer A is incorrect because Application, Session, and Presentation have always been a part of the upper layers. D cannot be correct because again, Session is part of the upper layers. C is incorrect because it would require Layer 4 to be either transitional or part of the upper layers. Layer 4 has never been considered one of the upper layers, and as this exam has just been completely revised, the old definition of Layer 4 as transitional is highly unlikely.
Of course the same thing is happening at the interface for segment "B". Within a few seconds the bridge will have compiled tables for the stations on both segments of the network and frames will either be checked and passed or stopped and discarded based on destination address and completeness of the frame. The ability of bridges to automatically build and update network tables led many to call them learning bridges. So, what did all of this really accomplish? First, traffic that is moving between stations on the same segment stayed on that segment and did not tie up the resources of the other segment.