By Clare Gough
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Extra resources for CCNP Routing Exam Certification Guide
Multicast addresses are read only by devices belonging to the multicast address and are forwarded only to segments that contain such devices. Refer to the Cisco Design Guides, on the Cisco Connection Online (CCO) web page, for more information on these topics. Runaway Congestion When packets are dropped, requiring retransmission, the congestion will inevitably increase. In some instances, this may increase the traffic exponentially; this is often called runaway congestion. In relatively unsophisticated protocols, such as Spanning-Tree Protocol, it is almost unavoidable, although others may have methods of tracking the delays in the network and throttling back on transmission.
A collision requires all transmitting devices to stop sending data and to wait a random amount of time before attempting to send the original packet. Only the nodes involved in the collision are required to wait during the backoff period. 096 ms for Gigabit Ethernet). If after 16 attempts the device fails to transmit, it gives up and reports the error to the calling process. book Page 35 Thursday, December 21, 2000 6:22 PM Identifying the Problems Created by Network Congestion 35 retransmits the original packet.
It knows only about subnetworks 20 and 30. When Workstation A tries to connect to Server B at the corporate offices, it has a problem. Router X can direct the traffic to Router Y. In turn, Router Y can forward traffic to Server B. However, when Server B responds, Router Y has no way to forward back to Router X because it has no entry for remote subnetwork 10. In a more complex environment, routing loops often occur because of poor network design. 0 Incomplete Server Lists Congestion results in the random loss of packets.