By J. Gonda
The nature of the Indo-European moods : with certain regard to Greek and Sanskrit
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Extra info for Character of the Indo-European moods with special regard to Greek and Sanskrit
Held, Papoea’s van Waropen, Leiden 1947, p. ; S. Schayer, II Struktur der magischen Weltanschauung, Zs. für Buddhismus, 6, p. ; ] Gluckman, The logic of African science and witchcraft, Rhodes-Livingstone Ini Journal, I (1944), p. ; B. Malinowski, Magic, Science and Religion, New Yo: 1954; J. Gonda, Inleiding tot het Indische denken, Antwerpen-Nymegen 1949, ch. x) In folk- and fairy-tales chronology is, aä a rule, a matter of no consequent the hero and heroine remaining young and time sometimes ‘standing still’ .
However, her subsequent reflections on a past tied up with the matter o f aspect can, in m y opinion, be dropped, since the inj. was no past. Her thesis that the use of the inj. as the equivalent o f a subj. or an opt. may be due to a misinterpretation o f its use in prohibitions and also to a common confusion between past indicatives and optatives can, it would appear to me, be replaced by a more con vincing hypothesis which is not founded on the assumption o f confusion. It now remains for to expound my own views.
Especially the future is not infrequently vague ly represented. In many languages, also in modem Europe6), future processes are far from being always indicated by special verb forms. One o f the factors contributing to this usage is the following: future events can be expected and regarded as certain, and by the strong emotions which they arouse be experienced as present6) . They can, psycho logically speaking, belong to the psychological now. W e might in this connection not only remember the well-known present instead o f a future in the speech o f diviners and oracles: Pind.