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22) Please click the advert Note that Eqs. 22) are only valid at the azeotropic composition. com 54 Partial molar properties Chemical Thermodynamics Given an activity coefficient model, we can use Eq. 22) to determine the azeotropic composition. 23) By substituting Eq. 23) into Eq. 24) Therefore, if we are given the parameter A, we can determine the azeotropic composition. On the other hand, if we are given the azeotropic composition, then we can fit the parameter A. Rearranging Eq. 25) We can also determine what values of the parameter A will lead to an azeotropic system.

2 between x2 and x2 ). In this situation, any line that connects two points on the curve will lie below the curve, and thus the mixture will want to phase separate. 1: The molar Gibbs free energy G of a stable binary mixture as a function of the mole fraction of component 2 (solid line). The dashed line is the tangent line to G at the composition x2 = x◦2 . An ideal solution is never unstable and will always remain as a single phase mixture. To prove this, we need to demonstrate that ∂ 2 Gid /∂x22 is always positive.

Of the liquid is lower than the boiling temperature of either pure components. The corresponding bubble and dew point pressure curves have a maximum at the azeotrope (see Fig. 5b). For a high boiling azeotropic system, the bubble and dew point temperature curves meet at a maximum in the T xy diagram. Mixtures of nitric acid and water form exhibit a high boiling azeotrope; this system is shown in Fig. 6. 2 Liquid-liquid equilibria When two liquids are mixed together, they do not always form a single, homogenous liquid phase.

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