By Taoufik Bourdi
During this ebook, the authors define certain layout technique for quick frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications purposes. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent section locked loops from requisites, method research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The constructed ideas within the booklet may also help in designing very low noise, excessive pace fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
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Extra info for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation
Description of the charge pump mechanism in a PLL. -G. Goldberg. Digital Techniques in Frequency Synthesis, MacGrawHill, New Jersey, 1996. -G. Goldberg, “Analog and Digital Fractional-n PLL Frequency Synthesis: A Survey and Update,” Applied microwave and wireless, June 1999. Tutorial presenting fractional-N frequency synthesis. V. Brennan, Phase-Locked Loops, Principles and Practice, McGrawHill, New Jersey, 1996.  D. B. Leeson, “A Simple Model of Feedback Oscillator Noise Spectrum,” Proceedings of the IEEE, MI, 54 (2), pp.
Small signal frequency- domain analyses are used to minimize the rms. phase noise with respect to the loop filter, subject to bandwidth and phase margin constraints. 2. PFD/CP nonlinearities are easily modeled and specified by a simple transfer curve. 3. Phase-domain models are compatible with the CadenceTM environment, which means that the architecture can be changed without having to rewrite any code, top-down design flow. 4. A phase-domain model suppresses the carrier, making time domain faster than voltage-domain models in the CadenceTM environment.
The up and down signals control two switches to source or sink current into the loop filter 18 Chapter 3 capacitive elements. The loop filter is usually of second order. However, a third-order loop filter could be used if spurii of the PFD sampling feed-through are to be suppressed . A typical illustration for the sourcing and sinking of the CP currents is shown in Figure 3-4. The gain of such a CP is normally given by ICP and its unit is in amperes. Vsup Vsup Vsup Iup Iup Iup Up Up Up Icp Icp Icp Dn Dn Dn Zs Idn Zs Zs Idn Idn Figure 3-4.