Download Design Methodology for RF CMOS Phase Locked Loops by Carlos Quemada PDF

By Carlos Quemada

Engineers face stiff demanding situations in designing phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits for instant communications due to section noise and different hindrances. This sensible publication involves the rescue with a confirmed PLL layout and optimization method that we could designers investigate their suggestions, expect PLL habit, and advance inexpensive PLLs that meet functionality necessities it doesn't matter what IC (integrated circuit) demanding situations they arrive up opposed to. This uniquely complete toolkit takes designers step by step via operation rules, layout systems, part noise research, format issues, and CMOS realizations for every PLL construction block. It offers a pattern layout of an absolutely built-in PLL for WLAN purposes, demonstrating each step from specifications definition and circuit characterization to format iteration and circuit schematics.

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PLL Fundamentals 35 Spurious Based on Current Leakage (Leakage-Spurs ) At low reference frequencies (kHz), the effects caused by the leakage currents are the main cause of the reference spurious emissions. When the PLL is in a locked loop condition, the charge pump generates narrow pulses of currents spaced out by long periods of time, during which this charge pump is found to be in a high impedance state (tristated ). However, this is just an ideal approximation, as the intrinsic characteristics of PN junctions provide leakage currents.

8 in which typical phase noise from a PLL is represented. It can be seen that at very small offset frequencies the source of noise that dominates is the reference crystal. Next, at slightly higher frequencies, but always smaller than the loop bandwidth, the phase detector noise dominates. Finally, at higher frequencies to this bandwidth, the biggest source of noise is the VCO with more or less influence on the loop filter, depending on what the actual level of noise is. 6). 14). 8 Typical phase noise from a PLL.

Moreover, for this last hypothesis, the odd harmonics of 5 MHz are also present in the signal path, which can result in errors of the control of the VCO. N = NL + k , k = 0, 1, . . 3. This divider consists of a prescaler, a program counter, and a swallow counter. 2 Integer architecture. 3 Pulse-swallow frequency divider. of the control line of the module, (2) the program counter always divides the input of the prescaler by P, and (3) the swallow counter divides the gate of the prescaler by S, where S is determined by the digital channel selection input and can vary from one to the maximum number of channels.

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