By Dr. Rainer Sandau (auth.), Rainer Sandau (eds.)
Digital airborne cameras at the moment are penetrating the fields of photogrammetry and distant sensing. end result of the final decade’s leads to examine and improvement within the fields of for example detector expertise, computing energy, reminiscence capability place and orientation dimension it's now attainable with this new iteration of airborne cameras to generate assorted units of geometric and spectral facts with excessive geometric and radiometric resolutions inside of a unmarried flight. this can be a decisive virtue compared to movie established airborne cameras. The linear attribute of the opto-electronic converters is the root for the transition from an imaging digicam to an photos producing measuring device. as a result direct electronic processing chain from the airborne digital camera to the information items there is not any desire for the techniques of chemical movie improvement and digitising the movie details. Failure resources in addition to investments and employees expenditures are kept away from. however the potent use of this new expertise calls for the data of the beneficial properties of the picture and data iteration, its probabilities and its restrictions.
This booklet describes all parts of a electronic airborne digicam from the thing to be imaged to the mass reminiscence gadget. So the picture caliber influencing tactics within the nature are defined, as for example the mirrored image of the electromagnetic sunlight spectrum on the items to be imaged and the effect of the ambience. additionally, the fundamental positive factors of the recent electronic sensor method, their features and parameters, are addressed and placed into the procedure context. The complexity of the cooperation of all digicam elements, as for example optics, filters, detector parts, analogue and electronic electronics, software program and so on, turns into obvious. The publication comprises additionally the outline of an instance system.
Audience: This e-book should be of curiosity to managers, operators, information clients facing the hot electronic airborne cameras; scholars within the fields of photogrammetry and distant sensing.
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Additional info for Digital Airborne Camera: Introduction and Technology
To present the relationships between the radiometric and photometric quantities a precise definition of the radiometric quantities already used is necessary. The spectral radiance Lλ is the power of radiation emanating from a surface per unit wavelength interval (for example, 1 nm), per unit area (for example, 1 m2 ) 40 2 Foundations and Definitions and per unit solid angle (steradian, sr). It is a function of spatial coordinates x, y, time t, wavelength λ, zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ. It has the dimension [W/(m2 ·sr·nm)].
It should be noted that in both alternative solutions shown in Fig. 4-7, the differences in angles of convergence and exposure time between the spectral channels, on the one hand, and between spectral channels and the panchromatic channels, on the other, lead to pixel cover problems during data processing or presentation. These systemic pixel cover problems arising from angles of convergence and varying recording time points also occur with analogue airborne cameras, however, when images from several flight missions using different films (panchromatic, colour, IR) are joined.
The variable Lλ (measured in [W/(m2 ·sr · nm)]) characterizing the radiation properties of the emitting surface is called spectral radiance. In general, Lλ depends on the position of the emitting surface element, the time of emission, the wavelength λ and the direction s of emission. In the (idealized) case of a Lambertian radiator, Lλ does not depend on the direction s of emission. For simplicity, this case is often n s ϑ ΔΦ Fig. 2-1 Emission of radiation ΔΩ 36 2 Foundations and Definitions used for coarse estimation.