By Wolfgang Maichen
As many circuits and functions now input the Gigahertz frequency diversity, actual electronic timing measurements became an important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits. to achieve success during this endeavour, an engineer wishes a data base protecting instrumentation, dimension concepts, sign integrity, jitter and timing thoughts, and information. quite often even the main skilled electronic try engineers, whereas gaining knowledge of a few of these matters, lack systematic wisdom or adventure within the excessive pace sign area.Digital Timing Measurements offers a compact, practice-oriented evaluation on all these matters. The emphasis is on useable suggestions and real-life guidance that may be without difficulty positioned into perform, with references to the underlying mathematical thought. It unites in a single position numerous details proper to excessive velocity trying out, size, sign constancy, and instrumentation.
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A short stub hanging off my path) as a transmission line, and when can I get away with treating it as a lumped inductance or capacitance? This is indeed not a trivial question, and whole books are dedicated to answering it. The first remark should be that we can never go wrong treating something as a transmission line (though it may be a very inhomogeneous one), but it can entail unnecessary effort (unnecessary in the sense that the improvement in accuracy will be immeasurably small for the given purpose).
18 It may change with signal amplitude if the signal power is large enough to cause significant heating of the conductors, but it digital applications this is rarely the case. #1. g. sinusoidal clock signal, or a digital signal transition), then the current distribution in the conductors is no longer homogeneous. Instead, mutual induction between all the partial currents across the cross section causes the current to be pushed out to the surface of the conductor. For frequencies above a few MHz virtually all current flows in a very thin layer below the surface, reducing the effective current-carrying cross-section and thus increasing the ohmic losses.
Looking at the general block diagram of such a scope (Figure 21) we can discern many similarities with an analog scope, but also a number of differences: Just as before, the incoming signal passes through an amplifier/ attenuator that makes its amplitude suitable for the subsequent stages. And 44 Chapter #2 again some part of the signal is fed to the trigger circuitry. 25 The first big difference is that the signal is not fed directly to a cathode ray tube but instead goes into an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).