By Kevin P. Menard
Dynamic mechanical research (DMA) has left the area of the rheologist and has develop into a widespread instrument within the analytical laboratory. even if, info at the use of this significant software remains to be scattered between various books and articles. rookies within the box need to dig via thermal research, rheology, and fabrics texts simply to locate the fundamentals.
Updated with new fabric, increased functional reasons, and new purposes, Dynamic Mechanical research, moment variation keeps to offer chemists, engineers, and fabrics scientists a place to begin for employing DMA to their person fields. It imparts a transparent knowing of the way DMA works, its merits, and attainable barriers. extra themes comprise stress/strain, facts dealing with, experimental expertise, try equipment, and knowledge research.
One of the one references devoted to DMA, this obtainable and easy-to-read consultant gathers the main pertinent info to be had in this very important technique.
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Extra resources for Dynamic mechanical analysis : a practical introduction
All materials are at least slightly rate dependent, but the effect is small in elastic materials. Stress, σ increases. Long fibers, on the other hand, cause an increase in both the modulus and the ultimate strength. In both cases, there is an upper limit to the amount of filler that can be used and still maintain the desired properties of the polymer. For example, if a too high weight percent of fibers is used in a fiber reinforced composite, there will not be enough polymer matrix to hold the composite together.
While both compressive and shear cause an apparent thinning of the material, extensional flow causes a thickening. 5. 16 Cone and plate rheometers. (a) Cone and plate arrangement from a shear rheometer showing the gap and cone. The cone angle and gap are selected to generate a more even stress field across the sample. (b) A parallel plate arrangement means material at the center barely moves while edges move more, generating a greater stress in the material. The angle of a cone and plate corrects this to some extent.
This is also seen in suspensions and colloids. One common behavior is the existence of a yield stress. This is a stress level below which one does not see flow in a predominately fluid material. 21 Hysteresis in polymers is an indicator of nonlinear behavior. 22 The yield stress in mayonnaise shows the affect of an important non-Newtonian behavior in food products. (a) A stress–strain curve with a visible knee at the yield stress. (b) Detecting the yield stress from a viscosity-rate plot. Data collected by the author.