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By R. Poignant

In 1965 Mr. Raymond Poignant released a comparative learn, entitled "Education within the universal marketplace Countries", of the organi­ sation and kingdom of improvement of schooling within the six international locations of the group and in 3 industrialised nations: the us, the uk and the USSR. Mr. Poignant, at the present Director of the foreign Institute for tutorial making plans (UNESCO), compiled the fabric for this examine while he used to be Chairman of a committee organize by way of the EEC Institute for collage experiences. considering that then it has turn into a reference paintings for all those that desire to less than­ stand the similarities and the range of our academic structures; it's been translated into German and English. within the preface to the 1st variation we expressed the want that this paintings of comparative research could be pursued and stored updated. This want is fulfilled within the paintings we're now introducing, and which was once undertaken by means of Mr. Poignant pursuant to an contract among the eu Cultural origin and the overseas Institute for academic making plans. it may be emphasized that this isn't easily a revised variation of the former paintings. The scope of the publication has been enlarged, and Japan and Sweden at the moment are integrated within the checklist of nations tested; extra­ over the point of view is different.

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As we shall see below (Section 3) the "lower level" of secondary school is very wide-open to young people in Belgium owing to the progressive suppression of the higher cycle (4th degree) of primary school. Furthermore, the "lower cycle" (age 12-15) of technical education (see Chapter II) is very close in level to the general school. Furthermore in the public schools, lower level technical and vocational sections have been set up alongside the general sections in most middle schools, which have thus become "multilateral" establishments.

In the five countries considered here, the purpose of the general education in the second secondary cycle is still "pre-university," or in other words the second general cycle continues to be principally preparatory to the various forms of higher education. That means that the idea of treating the complete secondary school (twelve years general studies in all) as the future "basic school" for all young people preparatory to all levels of specialisation, is not yet contemplated. In Japan the second cycle secondary establishments (kOtogakkO) most frequently combine general education sections with technical sections62 which, in principle, prepare for a vocational specialisation (see Chapter II).

Thus, through the effect of electives in classes 7 and 8 and sections in class 9, progressive orientation was provided towards the differentiated streams of the second secondary cycle. A further reform of the basic school was adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1969. It mainly affects the higher level (hogstadiet) and was brought into operation from the start of the school year 1970-71 in the 7th class; it will therefore be applied in 1972-73 to the whole of this three-year cycle. This reform is designed to narrow the progressive differentiation of studies, particularly by doing away with the section system in the ninth year.

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