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By S. Flügge

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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Physics. Principles of Classical Mechanics and Field Theory

Sample text

02 ? 56 ? 70 ? 85 ? P. 00 273 Comment on the temperature values for the two constant-volume thermometers. Which one gives values closer to the ideal gas scale? , Equilibrium Thermodynamics, third edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1984. , The evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales and the state of the art, Journal of Chemical Education 76, 911–913, 1999. W. , Heat and Thermodynamics, 7th edition, McGrawHill, New York, 1997. 19 Chapter 2: Reversible Processes and Work Thermodynamics is concerned with changes in the different state functions that occur when a system changes from one equilibrium state to another.

In practice, such a T X may not occur if the thermometric variable does not vanish as the temperature is progressively lowered. For example, the resistance of a length of platinum wire always remains nonzero, becoming nonlinear and tending to a constant value at the lowest attainable temperatures. The ideal gas scale, to be discussed below, does have a meaningful zero of temperature because the thermometric property used there, the pressure, eventually vanishes as the temperature is extrapolated to zero.

Then the intermediate states are not equilibrium states, and so one cannot apply the equation of state F = F(L, T), and the analysis appears to be invalid. The answer to this critique is that the preceding analysis is still sound because the wire is being taken between equilibrium states. The initial tension of the wire is completely fixed by specifying the initial state (L, T1) as is the final tension by specifying the final state (L, T2). Thus the change in the tension is determined by specifying the end points: ∆F = F2 − F2 = F ( L , T2 ) − F ( L , T1 ) In other words, the change in the state function F does not depend on the path taken from state 1 to state 2.

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