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By Tarik Al-Shemmeri

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It's implications may be visualized in terms of the waterfall analogy. 1 Second Lay of Thermodynamics – statements: The second law, indicates that, although the net heat supplied,Q1-Q2, in a cycle is equal to the network done, W, the gross heat supplied, Q1 must be greater than the network done; some heat must always be rejected by the system. Q1 > W, or to be precise:- W = Q1 – Q2 (44) Where, Q1 is the heat supplied and Q2 is the heat rejected. The ratio of network output to heat supplied is known as the thermal efficiency of the system.

1). 39 3. 16) of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. 2 First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle. 1 First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to closed Systems consider a closed system where there is no flow into or out of the system, and the fluid mass remains constant. For such system, the first law statement is known as the Non-Flow Energy Equation, or NFEE abbreviated, it can be summerised as follows: ∆U = Q − W (25) The first law makes use of the key concepts of internal energy (∆U), heat (Q), and system work (W).

Ln 2 ] T1 n − 1 T1 n −1 T1 but Cp = Cv +R and Cp = γ. Ln T1 T2 QED 61 3. 95 dry is throttled to 10 kPa. What is the quality of the steam after throttling? 24 kJ/kg , which is higher then hg at 10 kPa, the steam will be in a superheated condition. 62 3. 85 dry. a) Neglecting heat losses and changes in ke and Pe, estimate the work output per kg steam. b) If, when allowance is made for friction, radiation, and leakage losses, the actual work obtained is 80% of that estimated in (a), calculate the power output of the turbine when consuming 600 kg of steam per minute.

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