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By Thomas Heinze

This booklet presents a primary entire precis of acylation tools in a truly functional demeanour. The insurance comprises new advancements no longer but summarized in ebook shape, and studies spectroscopic equipment, particularly FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy together with dimensional tools. a number of FTIR-, 1H NMR- and 13C NMR spectra are gathered at the supplemental CD-ROM.

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8). 4. Esterification of different polysaccharides with acyl chlorides in a tertiary base (Py) Polysaccharide Reference Starch [106] Inulin [107] Carboxylic acid chloride Octanoyl Octanoyl Lauroyl Stearoyl Stearoyl Caproyl Capryloyl Stearoyl Stearoyl Conditions Molar ratio AGU 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reagent Temp. 8 Fig. 8. Acylium salt formed from an acid chloride and the tertiary base Py The Py-containing reaction mixture and the resulting crude products are mostly brown because of side reactions, mainly polycondensation.

9, leading to unreasonable DS values [108]. Fig. 9. Reaction mechanism for the formation of 2-methyl-3-oxo-pentanoyl groups during the propionylation of polysaccharides with propionyl chloride in Py (adapted from [108]) The esterification of dextran, starch and cellulose with acid chlorides is combined with less side reactions if conducted in DMF or DMAc as slurry medium or homogeneously in DMAc/LiCl without an additional base (see Sect. 1). Thus, pure cellulose pentanoates and hexanoates can be obtained in DMF without Py.

9 In addition to the detection of substructures, the general assignment of 13 C NMR spectra discussed is also useful for the elucidation of structural features of unknown polysaccharides. g. 0), two-dimensional NMR techniques, and DEPT 135 NMR spectroscopy. The DEPT NMR technique reveals whether a carbon carries a proton, and the degree of protonation (CH, CH2 or CH3 ). In Fig. 6, a DEPT 135 NMR spectrum of dextran in DMSO-d6 is shown as a typical example. e. (1→6) linkages of the main chain (≈ 67 ppm), “free” C-6 atoms (≈ 60 ppm) and (1→6) linkages of the 26 3 Analysis of Polysaccharide Structures substructure (≈ 69 ppm, mainly functionalised C-6 adjacent to a (1→3) linkage).

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