By Frank Hartmann
This informative monograph describes the technological evolution of silicon detectors and their effect on excessive- power particle physics. the writer the following marshals his personal first-hand event within the improvement and in addition the belief of the DELPHI, CDF II and the CMS monitoring detector. the fundamental ideas of small strip- and pixel-detectors are awarded and in addition the ultimate large-scale purposes. The Evolution of Silicon Detector expertise acquaints readers with the manifold demanding situations concerning the layout of sensors and pushing this know-how to the boundaries. The specialist will locate severe info that's to date simply on hand in quite a few slide presentation scattered over the realm vast internet. This useful creation of silicon sensor know-how and its day after day existence within the lab additionally deals many examples to demonstrate difficulties and their strategies over numerous detector generations.
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Extra info for Evolution of Silicon Sensor Technology in Particle Physics
With longer strips and broader metal strips CMS reached val1 pf . ues between 300 and 600 pF depending on the sensor geometry, specifying cm·μm It has to be mentioned that reliable voltage resistant and thin, thus large, coupling capacitors were only technically realizable with additional nitrate layers. Inter-strip Capacitance (Cinter−strip = Cint ) The inter-strip capacitance Cint is one of the major contributions to the capacitance load into the amplifier. It should have a certain value to share charge between two or more strips.
5 μ m 24 1 Basic Principles of a Silicon Detector Precision marker SiO2 covering Si AC Pad Guardring Biasring Outer protecting ring (for CMS: AL over n++) Strip number DC Bias Pad resistor Rpoly Fig. 18 The top view of a sensor, the ring structures, like n + + active edge protecting ring, guard ring and bias ring are easy to spot. Both guard and bias rings are Al structures located on top of the p+ implants, they are directly contacted. Precision markers are needed to enable a precision assembly, while the strip numbers facilitate problem reports during quality assurance.
G. load capacity adaptations (TRIPLEX) and reductions even for faster shaping times (CDF and CMS). Fig. 22 Noise increases with strip length for the different CMS forward detector sensors and module geometries. 8 μs for DELPHI, 132 ns for CDF and 50 ns for CMS). The Cd dependent value b = 60e− /pF for CMS seems to be high, but it is completely driven by the sampling time; compared to the MX3 value one should appreciate the development progress made between the year 1990 and 2000. Obviously the strip length is proportional to the load capacitance Cd , being composed of the strip capacity to its neighbour and to the sensor backside.