By J. J. Delgado Domingos
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Extra info for Foundations of Continuum Thermodynamics
The correct restriction is one which involves only rotations, and possibly translations, of the reference frame. MULLER I have specifically mentioned that I apply a principle of material frame indifference with respect to Galilei transformations. In my case of a fluid this implies that the constitutive relations are isotropic functions with respect to the orthogonal group. But I agree with Professor Rivlin that, in general, if constitutive functions are isotropic with respect to reflections, this reflects a material symmetry rather than a universal law of nature.
1. Its precise meaning calls for some comments. The introduction of the absolute entropy instead of entropy differences is due to Planck 4 • However, I wish to put in a plea against the tradition of calling dG a probability. The number dG is usually large and fails to display the properties of a normalised probability; it is inferred from the solution of a differential equation, and is used only indirectly to establish two important probability distribution functions as shown in the next subsection.
4. B 2. 1 Prologue on Temperature On 7th February, 1615 the Venetian diplomat Giovanfrancesco Sagredo wrote a letter to Galileo Galilei in which he reported what he had read off from his thermoscope: that 'well water is actually colder in winter than in summer' and he muses 'that our senses judge differently't Beginning at that time and progressing at a painfully slow pace the concept of temperature as an empirical measure for hot and cold transpired. Even today there is often mistrust in 'the physical sense of temperature' in thermodynamics, and one purpose of this prologue is to suggest that we should not endorse that mistrust.