Download Foundations of Oscillator Circuit Design (Artech House by Guillermo Gonzalez PDF

By Guillermo Gonzalez

Oscillators are a massive part in brand new RF and microwave structures, and practitioners within the box want to know how one can layout oscillators for balance and best functionality. supplying engineers broader assurance than different oscillator layout books out there, this finished source considers the full frequency diversity, from low-frequency audio oscillators to extra advanced oscillators came upon on the RF and microwave frequencies. full of over 1,200 equations, the booklet offers pros a radical realizing of the foundations and perform of oscillator circuit layout and emphasizes using time-saving CAD (computer aided layout) simulation thoughts. From the idea and features of oscillators, to the layout of a large choice of oscillators (including tuned-circuit, crystal, negative-resistance, and rest oscillators), this targeted publication is a one-stop reference practitioners can flip to time and again whilst engaged on their hard tasks during this box.

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Extra resources for Foundations of Oscillator Circuit Design (Artech House Microwave Library)

Example text

7) requires that the imaginary part of ␤ ( j␻ ) be zero. 22) The frequency fo is the frequency of oscillation. 19) it follows that R 2 = 2R1 . In practice, the gain should be greater than 3 to start the oscillation. 3 are reasonable. It is interesting to observe that the op amp uses negative feedback through R1 and R 2 to provide the required gain A vo , and it uses positive feedback through the RC networks to obtain the required closed-loop phase shift. The attenuation in the positive feedback loop must be equal to the gain A vo , making the loop gain equal to one.

31 A quadrature oscillator. 2). 32. 44) This inverter produces a phase shift of −270° (or 90°). 47) which shows that the phase shift from v o2 to v o1 is −90°. 47) the loop phase shift is 0° and oscillations occur with v o2 being a sine signal and v o1 a cosine signal. 32 A quadrature oscillator. 44 Theory of Oscillators ␤ A v1 A v2 = − ͩ ͪ 1 1 1 + j␻ R 1 C 1 =1 j␻ R1 C 1 j␻ R 2 C 2 1 + j ␻ R 3 C 3 If R1 C 1 = R 2 C 2 = R 3 C 3 , the loop-gain condition reduces to ␤ A v1 A v2 = 1 (␻ R1 C 1 )2 =1 and the frequency of oscillation is ␻o = 1 R1 C 1 In a practical quadrature oscillator circuit, the component variations affect the required RC equality, and therefore, some tuning mechanism is needed, such as a variable potentiometer to implement the resistors.

19 shows three Wien-bridge oscillators with amplitude-limiting mechanisms. 19(a), when the diodes are off, the gain is 1 + R 2 || R1 ; and when a diode is on, the gain is reduced to 1 + (R 2 || R 3 )/R1 . 9. When a diode is conducting, the amplitude of the output voltage is limited. 19 Three Wien-bridge oscillators with (a, b, c) amplitude-limiting mechanism. 5V for an actual diode. 26) shows that the amplitude of v o depends on R 3 . This equation can be used to obtain the value of R 3 for a given amplitude of v o .

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