By Brun, René; Forschungsprozess.; Galli Carminati, Giuliana; Grid Computing.; Hochenergiephysik.; Informationstechnik.; Softwareentwicklung.; Carminati, Federico (eds)
Born after international struggle II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has came across itself restricted ever considering the fact that by means of to be had accelerator, detector and computing applied sciences. for that reason, HEP has made major contributions to the improvement of those fields, as a rule using their strategies. the discovery of the area huge net at CERN is simply the best-known instance out of many. This publication is the 1st entire account to track the background of this pioneering spirit within the box of computing applied sciences. It covers every little thing as much as and together with the present-day dealing with of the massive calls for imposed upon grid and allotted computing through full-scale LHC operations―operations that have for years concerned many hundreds of thousands of participating participants around the world and consequently give you the unique and common testbed for grid computing techniques. This e-book takes the reader on a guided journey encompassing all suitable themes, together with programming languages, software program engineering, huge databases, the internet, and grid- and cloud computing. the $64000 factor of highbrow estate laws for disbursed software program engineering and computing can be addressed. Aptly, the e-book closes with a visionary bankruptcy of what may well lie forward. Approachable and requiring simply simple figuring out of physics and laptop sciences, this ebook is meant for either schooling and examine
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Additional resources for From the web to the grid and beyond : computing paradigms driven by high-energy physics
Events are read in memory, processed and then deleted to make space for the next one. This calls for the possibility to have dynamic, variable-size memory structures that can be easily created and deleted thousands or millions of times. However not only the size has to be dynamic, but also the layout of the data structure. One event has tracks, which end at a decay vertex, generating other tracks variable in number. FORTRAN 77 has fixed-size arrays, which are very impractical for this kind of structure, particularly if high performances are required and memory is scarce.
In particular ZEBRA was able to write and read these data structures from machine independent files. The need for introspection to deal with derived data types doomed the efforts to move to FORTRAN 90. It was going to be as hard (if not more) with CCC, but we did not know this at the time. Using FORTRAN 90, it appeared pretty hard to make a general implementation equivalent to ZEBRA without parsing the data type description in the FORTRAN 90 modules. In fact, we encountered the same problem later with CCC, but we naively ignored at that time how much work it was to implement a data dictionary or reflection system describing at run time the type of objects.
The physicist applies cuts to some variables to find possible correlations and repeats this process until an interesting subset (possibly just a few events) has been identified. 1 Technologies, Collaborations and Languages: 20 Years of HEP Computing 31 Interactive Data Analysis, a new dimension for physics data mining made possible by PAW. Traditionally this analysis process was performed with short jobs and the main tool used for this work was a histogramming package. The most popular package used for this task was HBOOK for many years and the system is still widely used today within the experiments that did not move to CCC.