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By Erich Krell

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The exchange of material can be described by the following basic equation. m =K x ueffx h,, (15Ri (in words : transition current = transition coefficient times effective area of phaw interface times driving force). T Fig. 23 a) Principle of simple distillation b) Principle of countercurrent distillation (;S = Vapour, $ = Liquid) 44 4. Physicel fundamentals of the separation procese The exchange of material takes place by diffusion through the phase interface. phase interface area, aeff,per unit of length.

In negative systems the reflux is dispersed into narrow streams and drops. However, this effect becomes appreciable only when Jc > 3 dynelcni-l. Systems with interface tension differences < 3 dyne/cni-' are termed neutral. The influence of column diameter and surface tension on the HTU in packed colunins in the countercurrent distillation of binary iiiixtiires was studied by Gomez and Strumillo @a]. 86 x F,O*O8 (18%) column diameter (62 - 200mni), F, = quotient of ~,low-boilingcomp. to u = surface tension.

39). The choice of the pressure depends on whether me wish to perform a ) an analytical distillation, h) a preparative distillation, c) a production distillation or (1) a distillation for comparison with a large-scale operation. In general we should choose a pressure for the distillation such that, at the one extreme, the temperature in the column head is adequate for complete condensation with the cooling medium available and, at the other extreme, that the temperatures are not high enough to cause decomposition.

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