By J. P Holman
A textual content designed for introductory classes in warmth move, which additionally contains fabric on layout and machine functions. this can be the 7th version of this identify.
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Extra info for Heat transfer
20 mN/m1 and Δρ = 150 kg/m3 . What conclusions can you draw about the shape of the boundary in this case? 005 m2 at 298 K. 182 A parcel of water 1 kg in mass is located 1 km above a large body of water. The temperature of the air, lake, and the water parcel is uniform and remains at 22◦ C. What will be the change in entropy if the water parcel descends and mixes with the lake water and reaches equilibrium with it? 192 A gas container has compressed air at 5 × 105 Pa at 300 K. What is the maximum useful work available from the system per kilogram of air?
At a molecular level there is no distinct dividing surface at which the liquid phase ceases and the air phase begins. The so-called interface is therefore a diffuse region where the macroscopic properties change rather gradually across a certain thickness. The definition of this thickness is compounded when we realize that it generally depends upon the property considered. The thickness is at least a few molecular diameters (a few angstroms). The ambiguity with respect to the location of an exact dividing surface makes it difficult to assign properties to an interface.
The work necessary to move a volume dV of water from the bulk to the air bubble is given by (Pi − Po ) dV . This requires an extension of the surface area of the bubble by dAσ and the work done will be σ dAs . For a spherical bubble, dV = 4πr 2 dr and dAσ = 8πr dr. Therefore, ΔP = 2σ . 62) This is called the Young–Laplace equation. If we consider any curved interface that can be generally described by its two main radii of curvatures, R1 and R2 , then the Young–Laplace equation can be generalized as (Adamson, 1990; Adamson and Gast, 1997) ΔP = σ 1 1 .