By R. H. Jacoby (auth.), Ender Okandan (eds.)
Within the final 10 years the area has come to some extent the place the simply explorable oil deposits have now been came across, and it truly is expected that such deposits can be depleted via the start of the Twenty-first Century. despite the fact that, the expanding call for of guy variety for strength has triggered technologists to appear into methods of locate ing new resources or to reevaluat:e unconventional resources which, some time past, haven't been most economical. during this admire, heavy crude and tar sand oils have gotten very important in pleasing the world's power requisites. What are heavy crude and tar sand oils? there's nonetheless a few confusion as to their definitions, inasmuch as they range between corporations and international locations. to be able to set agreed meanings, UNITAR, in a gathering in February 1982 in Venezuela, proposed the next definitions (see additionally desk 1): 1. Heavy crude oil and tar sand oil are petroleum or petroleum like beverages or semi-solids evidently happening in porous media. The porous media are sands, sandstone, and carbonate rocks. 2. those oils can be characterised by means of viscosity and density. Viscosity might be used to outline heavy crude oil and tar sand oil, and density (oAPI) may be used whilst viscosity measurements usually are not to be had. three. Heavy crude oil has a gas-free viscosity of 100-10000 mPa.s (cp) three o at reservoir temperatures, or a density of 943 kg/m (20 API) three o o to one thousand kg/m (10 API) at 15.6 C and at atmospheric oressure.
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9. ; Ind. Eng. Chern. Fund. 15 59 (1976) • 10. ; "Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics, Vol. 1", Gulf Publishing Co. 1961. 11. Standing, M. ; "Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems", p. 60, Soc. of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX(1977) • 12. R. ; Hydrocarbon Processing, March 1980, p. 115. 13. Spencer and Danner; J. Chern. Eng. Data ~ 230 (1983). 14. Bishnoi, Heidemann and Shah; "The Oil Sands of CanadaVenezuela", 1977, p. 250. 15. H. and Yarborough, L. "PVT Measurements on Petroleum Reservoir Fluids and Their Uses", Ind.
21 and 22 show the specific gravity of the extracted tar oil vs. its molecular weight (cryoscopic) and recovery level. It was observed that the first 20 wt% of the tar had a bright clear yellow color; the first 37 wt% was still very transparent and yellow-orange in color; at the 50-55% level of extraction the tar oil was reddish-brown and transparent in thin sections only and at the 69% level the oil was brownish-black and completely opaque even in thin sections. 28 FIG. 18 10~ EXTRACT SOLUTION VISCOSITY VS.
S. Pat. 823 (1969). 9. ; Ind. Eng. Chern. Fund. 15 59 (1976) • 10. ; "Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics, Vol. 1", Gulf Publishing Co. 1961. 11. Standing, M. ; "Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems", p. 60, Soc. of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX(1977) • 12. R. ; Hydrocarbon Processing, March 1980, p. 115. 13. Spencer and Danner; J. Chern. Eng. Data ~ 230 (1983). 14. Bishnoi, Heidemann and Shah; "The Oil Sands of CanadaVenezuela", 1977, p. 250. 15. H. and Yarborough, L.