By Peter C. L. Yip (auth.)
An optionally available path within the final-year BEng progamme in digital engin eering within the urban Polytechnic of Hong Kong was once generated in line with the becoming want of neighborhood for graduate engineers able to designing circuits and acting measurements at excessive frequencies as much as a number of gigahertz. This publication has grown out from the lecture and educational fabrics written in particular for this direction. This path should still, within the opinion of the writer, top be carried out if scholars can take a final-year layout undertaking within the comparable quarter. Examples of tasks in parts concerning the subject material of this booklet that have been accomplished effectively within the final years that the path has been run comprise: low-noise amplifiers, dielectric resonator-loaded oscillators and down converters within the 12 GHz in addition to the 1 GHz bands; mixers; varactor-tuned and non-varactor-tuned VCOs; low-noise and tool amplifiers; and filters and duplexers within the 1 GHz, 800 MHz and 500 MHz bands. The booklet is meant to be used in a process 40 lecture hours plus twenty instructional hours and the prerequisite anticipated of the readers is a common wisdom of analogue digital circuits and simple box conception. Readers with out previous wisdom in high-frequency circuits are recom mended to learn the e-book within the order that it truly is prepared. ~ ______ In_t_ro_d_u_c_tl_·o_n ______ ~1 ~ 1.
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Additional info for High-Frequency Circuit Design and Measurements
E---o-~ Fig. 5 II-network as two back-to-back L-networks. ~ ~ IM_P_E_D_A_N_C_E_MA __T_C_H_I_N_G________________~ L I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ If the value of the virtual resistance R is desired to be higher than R 1 and R z, II-networks cannot be used, instead the two shunt reactances should be placed at the centre of the network to form a single shunt reactance, resulting in a T-network. The operating Q of a T-network is then given by where RL is the lower of Rl and Rz . Instead of deriving the design equations for the three-element T- and 11networks, the design equations for five possible variations of three-element networks (which could result in more than three elements) with one termination being capacitively complex are given below.
Even when a2 = 0, the output of the two-port is still not necessarily matched to the system impedance Zo, hence some of the power output will still be reflected at port 2-2' back into the network. However, this reflection only occurs within the 'walls' of the network between 1-1' and 2-2' and hence it is totally within the two-port network. It is important to note that the Sll and S21 so measured (or defined) will be different if the same network is measured by (or defined with respect to) a system of a different characteristic impedance.
1 Network A Q Q ... T ... JI Fig. 6 Network A. All X-values are positive. 4) = Q _ A' where A = ~[RI(1R: Q2) - B = R I (1 + Q2). ,. ·T· I I Q Q Q' Q' XL I Fig. 7 Network B. ~. Q IR'~ fc~. t>--]-x-Ic~3JR' IL _______ --'I Fig. 8 Network C. 7) Note that when V[(R2 - Rd/Rd > Q, the actual circuit Q is V[(R2 - RJ)/Rd. 4 Network D Device to be matched to R2 r--------, I I Q Co~ I----+- ! l I Fig. 9 Network D. 8) Note that the Q so defined is an approximated value for the circuit Q where C 1 <2i Cout is assumed.