By Lawrence Jones, Frederick Mills, Andrew Sessler, Keith Symon, Donald Young
This booklet provides a heritage of the Midwestern Universities learn organization (MURA) in the course of its lifetime from the early Nineteen Fifties to the past due Nineteen Sixties. MURA was once answerable for a few very important contributions to the technology of particle accelerators, together with the discovery of mounted box alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG), in addition to contributions to accelerator orbit concept, radio frequency acceleration innovations, colliding beams expertise, orbit instabilities, computation tools, and designs of accelerator magnets and linear accelerator cavities. a couple of scholars have been proficient by way of MURA in accelerator ideas, and went directly to vital posts the place they made additional contributions to the sector. The authors have been all individuals of the MURA employees and themselves made many contributions to the sector. No different such historical past exists, and there are fairly few courses dedicated to the background of particle accelerators. ancient heritage The Early MURA Years, 1953 1956 The Madison Years, 1956 1963 The final Years of MURA, 1963 1967 results and Reflections
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Extra resources for Innovation Was Not Enough: A History of the Midwestern Universities Research Association (Mura)
9. Longitudinal phase space near a resonant harmonic of a high-voltage rf bucket (stable region). One can see the stable orbits and also the scattered points at larger amplitude. qxd 38 9/8/2009 9:23 AM Page 38 I n n o v a t i o n Wa s N o t E n o u g h Fig. 10. Longitudinal phase space when two rf buckets overlap. The stochastic motion can be seen, which observation led to the idea of stochastic acceleration, and also to the generalization of this concept, by Boris Chirikov, to any non-linear oscillator.
In 1956, he moved to the MURA Laboratory, where he supervised the completion, installation, and measurement of the magnets for the Spiral Sector (Illinois) Model. He then undertook the design, construction, measurement, and correction of the 50 MeV Model magnets. After the initial testing of this model in the winter of 1959–1960, he returned to Purdue, where he pursued experiments in particle physics with his fellow professors. In the mid-1960s, he moved to Iowa State University. He died of a heart attack while attending a meeting at the ZGS at Argonne in January 1972.
In rf acceleration experiments like this, the beam is accelerated by a first betatron pulse to a starting energy (300 keV) for the experiment. An rf acceleration program is then executed. The resulting distribution in beam energy is then analyzed by a second betatron pulse, which accelerates the beam onto a target from which the beam intensity signal is plotted. qxd 40 9/8/2009 9:23 AM Page 40 I n n o v a t i o n Wa s N o t E n o u g h beam are closest to the target and arrive first, followed by lower-energy beam.