Download Integrated Frequency Synthesizers for Wireless Systems by Andrea Leonardo Lacaita, Salvatore Levantino, Carlo Samori PDF

By Andrea Leonardo Lacaita, Salvatore Levantino, Carlo Samori

The more and more challenging functionality requisites of communications platforms, in addition to difficulties posed by means of the continuing scaling of silicon know-how, current various demanding situations for the layout of frequency synthesizers in smooth transceivers. This publication includes every little thing you want to recognize for the effective layout of frequency synthesizers for modern communications purposes. if you would like to optimize functionality and reduce layout time, you will discover this booklet priceless. utilizing an intuitive but rigorous strategy, the authors describe easy analytical equipment for the layout of part locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers utilizing scaled silicon CMOS and bipolar applied sciences. the total layout method, from system-level specification to structure, is roofed comprehensively. functional layout examples are incorporated, and implementation concerns are addressed. A key problem-solving source for practitioners in IC layout, the publication may also be of curiosity to researchers and graduate scholars in electric engineering.

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Extra info for Integrated Frequency Synthesizers for Wireless Systems

Example text

Assuming ideal δ-like pulses, the first harmonic of the current may be approximately 44 Phase-locked loops given by: IP(ωref ) = (2Q S /Tref ) · [1 − e(−j2π t/Tref ) ] ≈ (2Q S /Tref ) · (j2π t/Tref ). 16) is then obtained by multiplying IP(ωref ) for the filter impedance. The value of Vtune The resulting SFDR is: SFDR = K VCO · |I (ωref )| · |Z (jωref )| 2ωref 2 . 15(c)), thus reducing to: SFDR ≈ K VCO Q S · 2πC2 t 2 . 17) Let us now make some remarks: r Note that C considerably reduces the spur level.

The spurious injection occurs at a rate Tref . 26). The ts shift balances the charge injection created by mismatches. 26, the positive current pulse is a result of the phase shift, 2π · ts /Tref , between the signals. The negative pulse is, instead, created by mismatches. 4 Spectral purity: spurs and phase noise For the charge injection to be balanced, the pulses must have the same area Q S = IP ts = I P tr . This effect ultimately causes a periodic disturbance at ωref . It modulates the tuning node, giving rise to spurious tones in the output spectrum at integer multiples of ±ωref .

The value of Vtune The resulting SFDR is: SFDR = K VCO · |I (ωref )| · |Z (jωref )| 2ωref 2 . 15(c)), thus reducing to: SFDR ≈ K VCO Q S · 2πC2 t 2 . 17) Let us now make some remarks: r Note that C considerably reduces the spur level. Without such a capacitance, the 2 impedance Z (jωref ) would be practically equal to R, that is, much higher in magnitude. r Large K VCO values are detrimental. This is not surprising, since a large tuning constant makes the oscillation frequency very sensitive to any disturbance.

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