By K. C. Garner, W. Fishwick
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4 . C. angular pick-off. (a) Narrow range, (b) Wide range make use of the principle that an inductance bridge in the form of a stator winding, can be unbalanced by the movement of a soft iron rotor, the circuit being as shown in Fig. 4 where (a) is the narrow range configuration (±30°), and (b) is the wide range circuit arrangement (± 25°). Care must be taken not to be confused by the nomenclature here, since the use of the word range is with 36 CONTROL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS regard to the range through which the device can operate without introducing ambiguity, and which is better demonstrated by the characteristics of operation of the two types as shown in Fig.
Usually such demodulators are themselves no better than linear to ± 1 % of full scale, and thus will further degrade the overall measuring system accuracy. The amplitude of the carrier frequency supply must also be accurately controlled for any variation will appear as spurious modulation. The frequency range of the output of the transducer measurement system is limited by the chosen carrier frequency, and should not be required to transmit signals containing higher frequencies than one-fifth of the carrier frequency.
Linearity error Potentiometers are constructed in two main ways, either by winding a fine wire on an insulating former, or by simply depositing a film of resistance material, such as carbon or metal, on a plastic former. In each case the shape of the plastic former must be accurately fabricated or the wire winding or resistive film will vary in shape, undesirably affecting the resistance per unit length of track. This will introduce a so-called linearity error. In the case of a wire-wound potentiometer, consistency in the resistivity or cross-section of the wire will similarly cause a linearity error, as will uneven spacing between the individual turns of wire.