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By E. Zachmanoglou, D. Thoe

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For larger corporations, it’s possible to split the ownership up into millions or even billions of shares. Then even someone with only a few thousand dollars to invest can own a tiny sliver of the 19 John Robertson business of a huge corporation like Suncor, Tim Horton’s, or Coca-Cola. As the business makes money, increases the stuff it owns, pays back its debt, the value of the business should go up. And because a share is just a part ownership of that business, its value goes up too. On top of the increase in value, a business may pay dividends5 to its owners – a cash payment that a company makes to its shareholders as a way of distributing the income earned.

The tax rate is just applied on the "marginal" dollars in that bracket. It is not possible to make more money pre-tax and end up with less after-tax from a raise or investment moving you "up a tax bracket" – only that last extra bit is taxed at the higher rate. For more, see Advanced Tax on page 147. 22 There is something called a deemed disposition where you could have to pay capital gains tax even without selling. The most common case would be if you owned something in a regular account, then moved it into a registered account like an 38 The Value of Simple term holder of a stock (or index fund that holds stocks) you can put off having to pay any tax for a long time.

This will be covered in more detail in the Record Keeping section on page 117. Return-of-capital is the last type of payment you may receive from an investment. This will eventually count as a capital gain, except you get the payment now. You will pay the tax later because return-of-capital reduces your average cost – for example, if you paid $5 per share for a company or mutual fund, and received $1 in return-ofcapital, well in tax terms that’s just your own money coming back to you. So now you have $1 in cash, and a share that now has a cost of $4.

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