By Steen Hansen, Stig Pedersen?Bjergaard, Knut Rasmussen(auth.)
This textbook is the 1st to offer a scientific creation to chemical research of pharmaceutical uncooked fabrics, complete pharmaceutical items, and of substances in organic fluids, that are performed in pharmaceutical laboratories worldwide.
In addition, this textbook teaches the basics of the entire significant analytical strategies utilized in the pharmaceutical laboratory, and teaches the foreign pharmacopoeias and instructions of value for the sphere. it really is basically meant for the drugstore scholar, to educate the necessities in “analytical chemistry” for the five years pharmacy curriculum, however the textbook can also be meant for analytical chemists entering into the sector of pharmaceutical analysis.
- Addresses the elemental options, then establishes the principles for the typical analytical equipment which are presently utilized in the quantitative and qualitative chemical research of pharmaceutical drugs
- offers an figuring out of universal analytical thoughts utilized in all components of pharmaceutical development
- compatible for a beginning direction in chemical and pharmaceutical sciences
- geared toward undergraduate scholars of levels in Pharmaceutical Science/Chemistry Analytical Science/Chemistry, Forensic analysis
- comprises many illustrative examples
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Extra resources for Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis
As an alternative to molarity, it is common to use concentrations expressed as mass per volume unit. 4. 0 ml. 62 Â 10À5 M paracetamol. 0125 mg/ml paracetamol. 2 g/mol). This corresponds to the following concentration in M: 12:5 mg=ml ¼ 12:5 g=l ) 12:5 g=l ¼ 8:27 Â 10À2 M 151:2 g=mol Concentrations can also be expressed as a percentage. The following definitions are used: mass of solute Á 100% mass of solution ð4:4Þ volume of solute Á 100% volume of solution ð4:5Þ % weight ¼ %ðw=wÞ ¼ % volume ¼ %ðv=vÞ ¼ % weight=volume ¼ %ðw=vÞ ¼ mass of solute Á 100% volume of solution ð4:6Þ When expressing concentration as a percentage, it is highly important to specify whether % weight, % volume, or % weight/volume has been used.
Multiple extractions are more efficient, but in the case of salicylic acid it is necessary to perform the extraction at a lower pH value if a quantitative extraction is needed. 15. It is obvious that quantitative extractions from an aqueous solution into an organic phase are more easily achieved if extraction is performed when the analytes are not ionized. Thus extraction of carboxylic acid should take place at low pH (pKa À 2 or 3 pH units) and bases at high pH (pKa þ 2 or 3 pH units). 3 Stereochemistry The pharmacological activity of drug substances is very dependent on their physicochemical behavior, often discussed as their ADME properties (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion).
In the example with 500-mg paracetamol tablets, the sample preparation normally includes pulverization of the tablets, dissolution of the tablets, and filtration of material that has not dissolved. Finally, the analytical measurement is performed, where the analyte or analytes are identified and quantified. In this textbook, focus will principally be directed on analytical measurements by titration, spectroscopy, chromatography, and electrophoresis, as discussed in subsequent chapters. In the example with 500-mg paracetamol tablets, spectroscopy is typically used to identify paracetamol and to measure the quantity of paracetamol in the tablets.