By Richard E. Sonntag, Gordon J. Van Wylen
Offers a finished and rigorous remedy of thermodynamics whereas holding an engineering viewpoint and, in so doing, presents a source with substantial flexibility for the inclusion of fabric on thermodynamics. up-to-date for this 3rd variation, it displays an elevated emphasis on environmental matters and a reputation of the progressively turning out to be use of desktops within the research of thermodynamics and resolution of thermodynamic difficulties. includes a number of examples, in addition to difficulties on the finish of every bankruptcy which are conscientiously sequenced to mirror the subject material.
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Extra info for Introduction to Thermodynamics, Classical and Statistical
6. Let heat be transferred to the water. During this process the temperature of the liquid and vapor (steam) will increase, and eventually all the liquid will become vapor. From the macroscopic view we are concerned only with the energy that is transferred as heat, the change in properties, such as temperature and pressure, and the total amount of energy (relative to some base) that the H20 contains at any instant. Thus, questions about how energy is stored in the H20 do not concern us. 6 Heat transfer to water.
The sixth degree of freedom of the molecule is vibration, which relates to stretching of the bond joining the atoms. For a more complex molecule such as H20, there are additional vibrational degrees of freedom. 5 shows a model of the H20 molecule. From this diagram it is evident that there are three vibrational degrees of freedom. It is also possible to have rotational energy about all three axes. Thus, for the H20 molecule, there are nine degrees of freedom (f = 9), three translational, three rotational, and three vibrational.
Three of these are the translation of the molecule as a whole in the x, y, and z directions, and two are for rotation. The reason why there are only two modes of rotational energy is evident from Fig. 4 The coordinate system for a diatomic molecule. 26 2. 5 The three principal vibrational modes for the water molecule. center of gravity of the molecule, and the y-axis along the molecule's internuclear axis. The molecule will then have an appreciable moment of inertia about the xaxis and the z-axis, but not about the y-axis.