By I. Prigogine
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Extra resources for Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes
4; this diagram indicates an internally reversible process from a to b. e. TI= T4 = T. The energy transfer obeys -SQ =- T SQo To where SQ = heat transferred to system and SQo= heat rejected from system, as in an engine (ER)undergoing an infinitesimal Camot cycle. e. adiabatic and reversible. 14) Note that the quantity of energy, SQ, can be written as a definite integral because the process is an isentropic (reversible) one. Then E,, is the energy that is unavailable and is given by cdefc. 15) where Q is defined by the area abfea.
The inlet temperature to the turbine is 1500 K and the turbine has an isentropic efficiency of 90%. The surroundings are at a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 300 K. Calculate, for the turbine alone: (i) the specific power output; (ii) the exhaust gas temperature; (iii) the exergy change in the gas passing through the turbine; (iv) the irreversibility or lost work. 287 kJ/kg K. 6 kJ/kg] 9 It is proposed to improve the energy utilisation of a steelworks by transferring the heat from the gases leaving the blast furnace at 600°C to those entering the furnace at 50°C (before the heat exchanger is fitted).
Thus, whilst the energy of the universe has remained constant, the quality of that energy has declined. This is true of all processes which take place irreversibly; that is, all real processes. 2 EXERGY APPLIED TO COMBUSTION PROCESS Combustion processes are a good example of irreversible change. In a combustion process the fuel, usually a hydrocarbon, is oxidised using an oxidant, usually air. The structure of the hydrocarbon is broken down as the bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms are broken and new bonds are formed to create carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapour.