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D'All, P. DiCesare, B. Esposito, P. Giusti, T. Massam, F. Palmonari, G. Sartorelli, G. Valenti and A. Zichichi. Physics Letters 92B, 367 (1980). "The agreement between the momentum distributions obtained in e +e- annihilation and in p-p collision~ suggests that the mechanism for transforming energy into particles in these two processes, so far considered very different, must be the same". Figure 8: The first paper where the "Effective Energy" was introduced in the study of high energy (pp) interactions at ISR.

N. Bogoliubov, B. V. Struminski and A. N. Tavkhelidze, Preprint Jll\R D-1968 (1964). [24] M. Han andY. Nambu, Phys. Rev. B139 1006 (1965). [25] Y. Miyamoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. Extra Number (1965) 187. [26] H. Frit~sch and M. Gell-Mann, eConf C 720906V2 (1972) 135, hepph/0208010. [27] M. Gell-Mann, Acta Phys. Austriaca Suppl. 9 (1972) 733. [28] G. Ecker, The colowful world of quarks and gluons I: The shaping of Quantum Chromodynamics, Talk given at Xth Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum, Munich, Germany (2012).

Later we introduced the name "Quantum-Chromodynamics" (QCD). We published details of this theory one year later together with Heinrich Leutwyler (Fritzsch, Gell-Mann and Leutwyler, 1972). In QCD the gluons interact not only with the quarks, but also with themselves. e. the theory is asymptotically free, as discovered in 1972 by Gerard 't Hooft (unpublished) and in 1973 by David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek. Thus at high energies the quarks and gluons behave almost as free particles. This leads to the approximate "scaling behaviour" of the cross-sections in the deepinelastic lepton-hadron scattering.

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