Download Kollaps: livet vid civilisationens slut by David Jonstad PDF

By David Jonstad

Att civilisationer kommer och går är knappast ett kontroversiellt på stående. Romarriket och mayaimperiet är populära historiska exempel. males att vår egen industriella civilisation har ett bäst före-datum det är svårare att acceptera.

Likväl genomsyras Kollaps av detta faktum. Genom att titta på såväl nutid som historia försöker David Jonstad ge en bild av vad som får en civilisation på fall. En av de huvudsakliga orsakerna tycks vara komplexitet. Ju större komplexitet, desto större threat för kollaps.

Tre grundpelare bär upp den industriella civilisationen: energi, ekologi och ekonomi. Det är storheter som kännetecknas av stor komplexitet och som dessutom är tätt sammanbundna med varandra. När den billiga fossila energin som hållit igång systemet börjar sina, när den ekonomiska tillväxten inte längre ångar på och när klimatet hettas upp är resultatet en kollapsartad krutdurk.

Det är skrämmande: Vi måste anpassa oss until eventually en värld utan överskott på billig energi, med lägre levnadsstandard och hårdnad konkurrens om resurserna. males också hoppfullt: Människan är anpassningsbar och har genom historien visat upp en enastående förmåga att genom samarbete, kreativitet och solidaritet skapa goda liv även i svåra tider.

»Äntligen någon som inte bara sätter ord på den där gnagande känslan att en kollaps av samhället är något som mycket pekar mot, utan också diskuterar hur vi kan överleva den och gå vidare med ett alternativt samhällsbygge.«

ANNIKA CARLSSON-KANYAMA, FORSKNINGSCHEF PÅ TOTALFÖRSVARETS FORSKNINGSINSTITUT, FOI

»Kollaps är en hoppfull bok som visar att samhälleliga sammanbrott inte behöver vara så skräckinjagande som vi tror. Den föreslår bärkraftiga förhållningssätt och praktiska alternativ until eventually den moderna människans allt mer ohållbara livsstil. David Jonstad levererar ett modigt och oerhört viktigt budskap.«

ALF HORNBORG, PROFESSOR I HUMANEKOLOGI VID LUNDS UNIVERSITET

David Jonstad, född 1977, är chefredaktör på Klimatmagasinet Effekt, författare och frilansjournalist. Han har tidigare skrivit boken Vår beskärda del (Ordfront 2009).

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Within just a few months, Pickford’s popularity (and her hardnosed business acumen) yielded another successful salary renegotiation: a January 1915 contract gave her $2,000 a week and half the profits of her productions (ten films a year). That deal would soon be dwarfed by another one signed in mid-1916: Pickford would earn a guaranteed minimum of nearly $16,200 a week (or, if more lucrative, about a third of a million dollars plus half the profits of her contracted six films per year). Additionally, she would be given her own studio, her own production and releasing company (Paramount Artcraft), total choice of cast and crew, top production budgets, and a host of other perks.

Second, producers had to set a film’s rental charge so that, relative to its subsequent box office performance, it was neither too high (creating angry exhibitors) nor too low (throwing away profit). Studios came to rely upon stars as the most reliable predictors of a film’s possible and probable gross, based upon records of past performance. Expensive as they were, stars provided fiscal rationality. They were not actually expensive if they enabled outlay and income to be properly attuned. Losing money through inaccurate calibration was much more damaging to the bottom line.

As is not unusual among the year’s films, the female lead is the emotional pillar, and Ramona survives after her husband is driven mad and murdered. The film’s final shot, in which Ramona is comforted at Alessandro’s gravesite by her stepbrother Felipe (Francis J. Grandon), only hints at the mitigation of the tragedy—and the political critique—in the conclusion of the novel, where Ramona and Felipe marry and abandon the United States to move to Mexico. In the transition from novel to film, most of Jackson’s social protest was lost, and movie reviewers went out of their way to deny that any lingering protest might hit home.

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