Download Leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union: From the Romanov by John Paxton PDF

By John Paxton

This reference paintings surveys the leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union- from Michael, the 1st Romanov tsar in 1613, throughout the construction and dissolution of the Soviet Union, to the current day President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin. Chronologically prepared, those biographies paint an intensive but succinct portrait of 30 leaders together with dialogue in regards to the kinfolk and schooling of every ruler, vital laws, occasions, and wars below each one leader's rule; and every leader's achievements and impression on Russia or the Soviet Union.

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Additional info for Leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union: From the Romanov Dynasty to Vladimir Putin

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The use of torture is repugnant. Military Service leads to the attainment of honor. Justice should be dispensed in times of peace and war. Discrimination against those of different faiths would greatly endanger the peace and security of its citizens. qxd 5/21/04 5:40 PM Page 45 At its first session in 1767, the commission consisted of 564 deputies; 28 had been appointed and 536 elected; 30 percent were nobles, 39 percent city dwellers, 14 percent state peasants, 12 percent national minorities, 5 percent representatives of state administration, and 1 representative an ecclesiastic.

They finally withdrew under the threat of an advancing punitive force, having extracted from the townspeople an oath never to shave again. After the end of the Northern War in 1721, Peter was proclaimed emperor. Tsar as a title comes from the Latin Caesar used by the rulers of Muscovy from the fifteenth century to Peter I (the Great), who adopted the title Emperor of all the Russias in 1721. However the title Tsar remained in popular usage during the imperial period. In 1722 Peter promulgated a new law of succession, which enjoined that each monarch should nominate his own successor, and also established the Table of Ranks that formed a hierarchy of fourteen ranks of civil, military, and court services.

1954. Grey, I. Catherine the Great. 1961.

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