By Fredric W. Field
A few earlier methods to linguistic borrowing and call phenomena often have concluded that there are not any formal obstacles whatever to the types of fabric which may cross from one language into one other. even as, quite a few hierarchies illustrate that a few issues are certainly likely to be borrowed than others. "Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Contexts" addresses either, by way of studying claims of no absolute limits and synthesizing a number of hierarchies. It observes that every one touch phenomena are systematic, and borrowing is not any exception. concerning varieties, the identifying components lie within the nature of the morphological structures involved and the way they relate to each other. rules are proposed to figure out the character of the systematicity and interplay: the primary of method Compatibility (PSC), and its corollary, the main of procedure Incompatibility (PSI). jointly, those rules offer a constant account of the probabilities and bounds to borrowing.
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Additional resources for Linguistic Borrowing in Bilingual Contexts (Studies in Language Companion Series, Volume 62)
At any point in time) to represent the relevant morpheme types available to any language. Therefore, the Scale (or Continuum) of Morpheme Types (stated in (8), below) is proposed. This hierarchy, consistent with both the grammaticalization clines of C. Lehmann (1986), Heine et al. 2 below), is set forth as follows: (8) independent word, bound root > agglutinating aﬃx > fusional aﬃx Though the scale of morpheme types presented in this way is similar to the cline represented in (1), above, the emphasis has shifted to reﬂect a somewhat wider view of language types and the types of morphemes they consist of.
Sapir’s work became the seed for many conceptualizations of language that have followed. Many of his basic distinctions have endured into studies of grammaticalization, language acquisition, and language processing. The conception of a continuum or index of forms assumed a fundamental correspondence of independent words (or radical elements) and basic (concrete) concepts. It is at the other pole, with regard to secondary or relational concepts, that we ﬁnd that they are “sparsely developed” in some languages and “elaborated with a bewildering exuberance” in others (Sapir 1921: 95).
While a true mixed language may ultimately be “in the eye of the beholder,” the unique characteristics of Michif, Media Lengua, and other documented mixed varieties are remarkable from any standpoint. The terminological issues are not a matter of acknowledging their existence; they are more in accounting for their unusual characters. , relexiﬁed) by a lexical donor, with borrowings of a more grammatical and/or structural nature to be expected. That is, its characteristic morphosyntax is inherited more or less intact from an original language system (indigenous to the speciﬁc speech community) while signiﬁcant numbers of its content items and, perhaps to a somewhat lesser extent, free-standing function items are drawn from another, heretofore foreign source.