By Fadhel M. Ghannouchi
This first ebook on load-pull structures is meant for readers with a huge wisdom of excessive frequency transistor machine characterization, nonlinear and linear microwave measurements, RF strength amplifiers and transmitters. Load-Pull options with purposes to energy Amplifier Design fulfills the calls for of clients, designers, and researchers either from and academia who've felt the necessity of a booklet in this subject. It provides a complete reference spanning various load-pull dimension platforms, waveform size and engineering platforms, and linked calibration strategies for actual huge sign characterization. in addition to, this e-book additionally offers in-depth functional concerns required within the recognition and utilization of load-pull and waveform engineering platforms. furthermore, it additionally offers process to layout program particular load-pull setup and comprises numerous case reports the place the person can customise structure of load-pull setups to fulfill any particular dimension requisites. moreover, the fabrics lined during this publication may be a part of a whole semester graduate path on microwave machine characterization and gear amplifier design.
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Additional info for Load-Pull Techniques with Applications to Power Amplifier Design
The triplexer, which acts like filters for the respective harmonic components, separates the harmonic components from the output generated by the DUT. The subsequent filters at the output of the triplexer further improve the rejection of the out-of-band frequency components. The respective load-tuners for harmonic components f0 , 2f0 , and 3f0 tune the reflection environment as per specific requirements and reflect the respective a2 (f0 ), a2 (2f0 ), and a2 (3f0 ) and, in the process, synthesize the harmonically independent reflection factors by interacting with the respective components, b2 (f0 ), b2 (2f0 ) and b2 (3f0 ), of the traveling wave, b2 .
These electronic circuits can be based on either varactor or PIN diodes. The latter is more common for load-pull applications, due to the ability to handle higher power compared to varactor-based ETS. The diode-based ETS synthesize reflection coefficient by varying the impedance state of a number of PIN diodes connected in parallel and placed in a precise manner along a transmission line, an example of which is shown in Fig. 4. In such a configuration, each diode is capable of generating a continuous discontinuity as a spoke of a wheel of increasing |ΓL |, while other diodes can subsequently change the angle of ΓL discretely.
The term e13 represents the source mismatch, e12 e14 denotes the transmission tracking, and e15 indicates the error occurring in the measuring port of the VNA. The incident and reflected traveling waves at the input VNA ports are a0 and b0 , whereas the actual incident and reflected traveling waves at the input ports of DUT are represented by a1 and b1 , respectively. The VNA measures the uncorrected reflection coefficient, ΓinU , as given in Eq. 6) 40 2 Passive Load-Pull Systems Fig. 9 Signal flow error model for the output port incorporating the imperfections contributed by directional coupler, power meter and network analyzer , © IEEE 1984 The quantity of interest is, however, the input reflection coefficient, Γin , expressed in Eq.