By Howard Cam Luong, Gerry Chi Tak Leung
This booklet presents architectures and layout recommendations to let CMOS frequency synthesizers to function at low-supply voltage at excessive frequency with reliable part noise and coffee strength intake. It bargains in-depth updates on lots of those recommendations, and introduces priceless instructions and step by step approaches on habit simulations of frequency synthesizers. ultimately, the authors function 4 profitable prototypes to demonstrate power functions of the architectures and layout recommendations defined. Their paintings will turn out invaluable for engineers, managers, and researchers operating in RFIC layout for instant functions.
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Extra resources for Low-Voltage CMOS RF Frequency Synthesizers
Nevertheless, as discussed earlier, the spurious tone is larger as the loop bandwidth becomes wider. Therefore, there is a severe trade-off when designing the loop bandwidth and the settling time for a system. 5. 1. Introduction The general criteria to be addressed when designing a synthesizer are the channel spacing speciﬁcation, the phase noise, the power, the chip area, and complexity. Different architectures can fulﬁll different requirements and thus can be more suitable for different applications.
1. Charge-pump-based phase-locked loop (CP-PLL) The charge-pump-based PLL (CP-PLL) is a popular type of PLL, which employs a charge pump at the output of the phase detector to deliver charge to the loop ﬁlter. Such an implementation has the advantage of providing acquisition aid when the loop is out of lock (Egan, 2000). 7 shows the block diagram of a CP-PLL. The phase detector of a CP-PLL produces ‘up’ and ‘down’ signals to drive the charge pump to charge or discharge the loop ﬁlter so as to generate a control voltage for the VCO.
At that instant, the modulus control changes its status, and the prescaler switches from dividing-by-(N + 1) to 22 Synthesizer fundamentals dividing-by-N. Meanwhile, counter P continues to count the output pulses of the prescaler. Once counter P reaches overﬂow, which happens after (P − S) more pulses at the prescaler’s output or equivalently (P − S)N more pulses at the prescaler’s input, both counters will be reset and the whole cycle is repeated. Consequently, the effective division ratio, N, which is the same as the total number of pulses at the input counted for each cycle NTOTAL , becomes NTOTAL = S(N + 1) + (P − S)N = PN + S.