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Extra resources for Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterisation
Depending on the moisture and the strength of binding er′′ Slope − 1/b b=1 εr = εr∞ + εr0 − εr∞ 1 + (jβa )1−a where a is related to the distribution of β values, and βa denotes the most possible β value. The constant a is in the range 0 a < 1. When a = 0, Eq. 50) becomes Eq. 36), and in this case, there is only single relaxation time. When the value of a increases, the relaxation time is distributed over a broader range. If we separate the real and imaginary parts of Eq. 13. 12, only the points above the εr axis have physical meaning.
Correspondingly, the conductivity σ also consists of two components: superconducting conductivity σs and normal conductivity σn , respectively. The total conductivity of a superconductor is given by σ = σs + σn . The superconducting conductivity σs is purely imaginary and does not contribute to the loss: T Tc 1 4 −2 ms . 62) where ms and qs are the effective mass and electrical charge of the superconductive carriers. Eq. 62) indicates that the penetration depth has a minimum value of penetration depth λL (0) at T = 0 K.
26 Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization All the normal materials are “right handed”, which means that the relationship between the ﬁelds and the direction of wave vector follows the “righthand rule”. If the ﬁngers of the right hand represent the electric ﬁeld of the wave, and if the ﬁngers curl around to the base of the right hand, representing the magnetic ﬁeld, then the outstretched thumb indicates the direction of the ﬂow of the wave energy. However, for a left-handed material, the relationship between the ﬁelds and the direction of wave vector follows the “left-hand rule”.