By Janusz A. Dobrowolski
Scattering parameters or S-parameters (the components of a scattering matrix) describe behaviors of linear electric networks while present process numerous stimuli by way of electric signs. The parameters of the scattering matrix are hugely valuable to electric engineers concerned with microwave circuit and approach layout. This authoritative source offers entire and precise assurance of the wave method of microwave community characterization, research, and layout utilizing scattering parameters. For the 1st time in any publication, all facets and methods to wave variables and the scattering matrix are explored. The ebook compares and contrasts voltage waves, traveling waves, pseudo waves, and gear waves, and explains the diversities among actual scattering parameters, pseudo scattering parameters, and tool scattering parameters. additionally, pros locate transparent tools for traditional single-ended multiport community layout and noise research. This in-depth reference is filled with over 1,100 equations and various illustrations.
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Additional resources for Microwave Network Design Using the Scattering Matrix (Artech House Microwave Library)
1 The Cascade (Transfer Scattering Matrix) The cascade matrices are very convenient representations of networks being cascaded connections of two-ports. The cascade matrix of two cascadeconnected two-ports is the product of the two cascade matrices of connected two-ports. But this formula holds only when the connected ports are composed 49 Wave Variables and the Scattering Matrix of two identical waveguides without any discontinuities at the joint. Of course reference impedances of two connected ports have to be equal to each other.
15) Z = v/i is the impedance seen at the reference plane looking forward to the line. 2 A Shift in Reference Plane The scattering matrix elements (scattering parameters) are functions of frequency and of locations of reference planes that define the network ports. Values of scattering matrix elements change with frequency in a manner that is not generally deduced analytically. At fixed frequency, changes of locations of reference planes specified for each port and related to this transformation of the scattering matrix is easy to establish.
Matched loads requirement comes from the condition vk( + ) = 0 for k ¹ i. 7) vk( + ) = 0 for k ¹ j which means that Sij is the ratio of the outgoing wave voltage amplitude vi( - ), coming out of port i, to the incident wave voltage amplitude v (j+ ) at the port j, when all other ports are terminated in matched loads. Both voltage amplitudes are referenced to reference planes of the considered ports. At the same time the incident waves at all ports except driven port j are equal to 0, which means that all ports must be terminated in matched loads.