By Valeria Teppati, Andrea Ferrero, Mohamed Sayed
This complete, hands-on assessment of the main up to date thoughts in RF and microwave size combines microwave circuit concept and metrology, in-depth research of complex smooth instrumentation, tools and platforms, and sensible recommendation for pro RF and microwave engineers and researchers. themes coated contain microwave instrumentation, equivalent to community analysers, real-time spectrum research, sampling oscilloscopes and microwave synthesizers; linear measurements, resembling VNA calibrations, noise determine measurements, time area reflectometry and dielectric measurements; and non-linear measurements, reminiscent of load- and source-pull concepts, broadband sign measurements, and non-linear NVAs. each one strategy is mentioned intimately, and followed through cutting-edge strategies to the original technical demanding situations linked to its deployment. With every one bankruptcy added through across the world acknowledged specialists within the box, this can be a useful source for researchers and pros concerned with microwave measurements.
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Extra info for Modern RF and Microwave Measurement Techniques
Often the absolute delay is not a concern, but dispersion can significantly change a pulse shape through increased rise-time and the ringing of a step response. For this case, adding a vector voltmeter to our previously scalar measurement system would work, but the more general answer is to use a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) with two or more port signal switching, directional couplers (or bridges), wide dynamic range receivers, and “calibration” software. These features allow a VNA to clearly define the measurement reference planes and computationally remove the fixture behavior from the measurement.
The conductivity and frequency-dependent dimension of the electromagnetic penetration of current distribution in a metal, becomes smaller than the cross-sectional dimensions of the interconnection. For the lower range of frequencies where the skin-depth exceeds the conductor dimensions, the series resistance and commensurate attenuation are essentially constant as the entire cross-sectional area carries current. At increasing frequencies, the depth of penetration effectively limits the cross-sectional conductor area carrying current, resulting in series resistance that is proportional to the square root of the frequency.
T t DUT f Fig. 2 f Simple circuit transmission behavior. t t DUT f Fig. 3 Circuit behavior with reflections. f 24 Leonard Hayden Adding yet another level of complexity, we can consider the signal distortion in wide bandwidth signals caused by frequency-dependent delay (dispersion/deviation from linear phase). Often the absolute delay is not a concern, but dispersion can significantly change a pulse shape through increased rise-time and the ringing of a step response. For this case, adding a vector voltmeter to our previously scalar measurement system would work, but the more general answer is to use a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) with two or more port signal switching, directional couplers (or bridges), wide dynamic range receivers, and “calibration” software.