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Neutrino oscillations can convert a fraction of solar νe into νµ or ντ (or their combination). Since the energy of solar neutrinos is smaller than the masses of muons and tauons, these νµ or ντ cannot be detected in the CC reactions of the type (129) or (130) and therefore are invisible in the chlorine and gallium experiments. They can scatter on electrons through the NC interactions and therefore should contribute to the detection rate in water Cherenkov detectors. However, the cross section of the NC channel of reaction (131) is about a factor of 6 smaller than that of the CC channel, and so the deficit of the neutrino flux observed in the Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande experiments can be explained.

Figure 10: Solar neutrino spectrum and thresholds of solar neutrino experiments as indicated above the figure (from ref. [48]). 45 iments can also detect the lowest energy pp neutrinos. Since the flux of the pp neutrinos is very large, they are expected to give the main contribution to the event rates in the SAGE and Gallex detectors (fig. 12). The remaining two experiments – Kamiokande and its up-scaled version Super-Kamiokande – are the water Cherenkov detectors and use the neutrino-electron scattering reaction νa + e − → ν a + e − .

The flux of the most energetic hep neutrinos is the least certain one – it is only known to an accuracy of 1 - 2 orders of magnitude. Fortunately, this flux is very small, and its contribution to the detection rates of solar neutrinos is practically negligible. It can, however, affect the high energy part of the solar neutrino spectrum. The solar neutrinos have been detected in five solar neutrino experiments. Historically, the first one was the Homestake experiment of Davis and his collaborators.

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