By Thomas L. Koch
Totally up-to-date to handle the new advances in lightwave platforms, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III, Volumes A & B, offer definitive assurance of crucial points of modern day optical fiber communications expertise and provides perception into constructing study in what has turn into a multi-billion buck worldwide industry.Volume B, written through world-renowned specialists within the box, is the second one of 2 expansive volumees that absolutely hide the advances in lightware structures and parts, in either the industrial and learn arenas. The an important function of the diodepumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier in lengthy distance and WDM purposes are given thorough research, as is silicon optical bench wavelength know-how, photonic switching, and a projection of destiny advancements for the twenty first century.
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Extra info for Optical Fiber Telecommunications IIIB
8 shows the calculated effective gain region as a function of span number for a chain of amplifiers separated by twelve 80-km spans. The effective gain is calculated by sweeping the spectrum with a small-signal probe. After 12 spans, the 3-dB bandwidth is only about 5 nm. 530nm, the small-signal gain peak, will lose power in a chain of amplifiers if there are other signals present near the 1558-nm gain peak. Because of the challenges of demultiplexing closely spaced channels, as well as impairments introduced by four-wave mixing for closely spaced channels, channels in WDM systems should not be spaced too closely.
C. NOISE FIGURE The amplification of the EDFA is inescapably accompanied by a background of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). ASE arises when light emitted by spontaneous decay of excited erbium ions is captured by the optical fiber waveguide and then amplified in the EDFA. This ASE background adds noise that degrades amplified signals. The noise figure, defined as the signal-to-noiseratio (SNR) at the output divided by that corresponding to the shot noise of the signal at the input, is a measure of the degradation of the signal by noise added by the amplifier.
16 To permit a lower erbium concentration, erbium-doped fibers with larger cores and smaller corecladding refractive index differences are commonly used for applications where achieving high output power is more important than producing gain with minimal pump power. However, there is a trade-off. Increasing the core size of the erbium-doped fiber also increases the pump threshold, which exacts a price in pump conversion efficiency (see Eq. 3]), so that even for power amplifiers, the erbium-doped fiber is designed with a smaller core and a higher refractive index difference between the core and cladding than for standard transmission fibers.