Download Physics of Energy Conversion by Katharina Krischer, Konrad Schönleber PDF

By Katharina Krischer, Konrad Schönleber

This e-book covers the actual foundation of an important strength conversion approaches used for strength provide. presents the basics and a systematic figuring out of the physics at the back of thermal strength crops, sun cells and gear vegetation, batteries and fuels cells in addition to strength garage units.

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Sample text

The kinetic energy is pure exergy and has to be added to the total internal energies per volume at the inlet and outlet of the system. In the case of a wind turbine, the pressure and consequently the density of the air before and after the turbine is identical, as they are subject to essentially the same surroundings. The only change occurs in the kinetic energy of the moving air field, which is significantly lower at the outlet than the inlet. While the kinetic energy is pure exergy, it still cannot be fully used, as the air has to continuously pass the turbine and hence has to retain a certain speed and kinetic energy.

The vertical dashed line separates the two pressure levels in the cycle. the working fluid at a low temperature level T = Tam and released at a high temperature level T = Th . 4 of the appendix. 7. Fig. 7: TS- and pV-diagrams of the heat pump cycle. The area of coexisting phases (below the gray line) is shown together with the isothermal, adiabatic, and isenthalpic processes involved. 1 → 2: At the lower, ambient temperature T = Tam the working fluid is kept at a pressure where the boiling point is lower than ambient temperature and consequently it undergoes a phase change from the liquid to the gaseous phase taking up the evaporation heat 1 Q2 from the surrounding heat bath at T = Tam .

The system is then in the defined state ‘1’ characterized by pressure p1 and volume V1 . To establish this state the system actively pushes the moveable border which means, according to the sign convention used, that a negative work −p1 V1 is transferred across the borders of the system in this step. In the second step the mass in the closed compressor is compressed until the pressure p = p2 is reached, a process accompanied by a positive work W transferred into the system. Thereby the volume of the system is 36 | 3 Exergy in open systems Fig.

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